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Chronic ethanol increases calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIδ gene expression and decreases monoamine oxidase amount in rat heart muscles: Rescue effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract [Anatol J Cardiol]
Anatol J Cardiol. 2018; 19(1): 19-26 | DOI: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2017.8079  

Chronic ethanol increases calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIδ gene expression and decreases monoamine oxidase amount in rat heart muscles: Rescue effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract

Elaheh Heshmati1, Alireza Shirpoor2, Fatemeh Kheradmand3, Mohammad Alizadeh4, Farzaneh Hosseini Gharalari5
1Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia-Iran
2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences; Department of Nephrology and Kidney Transplant Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia-Iran
3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia-Iran
4Department of Nutrition Food and Beverages Safety Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia-Iran
5Department of Nephrology and Kidney Transplant Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia-Iran

Objective: Association between chronic alcohol intake and cardiac abnormality is well known; however, the precise underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced heart abnormalities remain elusive. This study investigated the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) gene expression and monoamine oxidase (MAO) levels and histological changes in rat heart. It was also planned to find out whether Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract mitigated the abnormalities induced by ethanol in rat heart.
Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals each: control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated-ethanol (GETE) groups.
Results: After 6 weeks of treatment, the results revealed a significant increase in CaMKIIδtotal and isoforms δ2 and δ3 of CaMKIIδ gene expression as well as a significant decrease in the MAO levels in the ethanol group compared to that in the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed histological changes, such as fibrosis, heart muscle cells proliferation, myocyte hypertrophy, vacuolization, and focal lymphocytic infiltration. Consumption of ginger extract along with ethanol ameliorated CaMKIIδtotal. In addition, compared to the ethanol group, isoforms gene expression changed and increased the reduced MAO levels and mitigated heart structural changes.
Conclusion: These findings indicate that ethanol-induced heart abnormalities may, in part, be associated with Ca2+ homeostasis changes mediated by overexpression of CaMKIIδ gene and the decrease of MAO levels and that these effects can be alleviated by using ginger extract as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

Keywords: ethanol, heart, oxidative stress, CaMKIIδ, rat, fibrosis, ginger


Elaheh Heshmati, Alireza Shirpoor, Fatemeh Kheradmand, Mohammad Alizadeh, Farzaneh Hosseini Gharalari. Chronic ethanol increases calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIδ gene expression and decreases monoamine oxidase amount in rat heart muscles: Rescue effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract. Anatol J Cardiol. 2018; 19(1): 19-26

Corresponding Author: Alireza Shirpoor, Türkiye


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