Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for refractory cardiac arrest in children after cardiac surgeryErsin Erek1, Selim Aydın1, Dilek Suzan1, Okan Yıldız4, Fırat Altın4, Barış Kırat2, Ibrahim Halil Demir3, Ender Ödemiş3
1Departments of Cardiovascular Surgery and Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Acıbadem Atakent Hospital, Medical Faculty, Acıbadem University, İstanbul-Turkey
2Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Acıbadem Atakent Hospital, Medical Faculty, Acıbadem University, İstanbul-Turkey
3Pediatric Cardiology, Acıbadem Atakent Hospital, Medical Faculty, Acıbadem University, İstanbul-Turkey
4Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul-Turkey
Objective: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used to provide cardiorespiratory support during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation; ECPR) unresponsive to conventional methods. In this study, the results of ECPR in a cardiac arrest setting after cardiac surgery in children were analyzed.Keywords: congenital heart disease, children, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, between November 2010 and June 2014, 613 congenital heart operations were performed by the same surgical team. Medical records of all the patients who experienced cardiac arrest and ECPR in an early postoperative period (n=25; 4%) were analyzed. Their ages were between 2 days and 4.5 years (median: 3 months). Sixteen patients had palliative procedures. In 88% of the patients, cardiac arrest episodes occurred in the first 24 h after operation. Mechanical support was provided by cardiopulmonary bypass only (n=10) or by ECMO (n=15) during CPR.
Results: The CPR duration until commencing mechanical support was <20 min in two patients, 2040 min in 11 patients, and >40 min in 12 patients. Eleven patients (44%) were weaned successfully from ECMO and survived more than 7 days. Five of them (20%) could be discharged. The CPR duration before ECMO (p=0.01) and biventricular physiology (p=0.022) was the key factor affecting survival. The follow-up duration was a mean of 15±11.9 months. While four patients were observed to have normal neuromotor development, one patient died of cerebral bleeding 6 months after discharge.
Conclusion: Postoperative cardiac arrest usually occurs in the first 24 h after operation. ECPR provides a second chance for survival in children who have had cardiac arrest. Shortening the duration of CPR before ECMO might increase survival rates.
Corresponding Author: Ersin Erek, Türkiye