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A systematic review of 3-D printing in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases [Anatol J Cardiol]
Anatol J Cardiol. 2017; 17(6): 423-435 | DOI: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2017.7464  

A systematic review of 3-D printing in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases

Zhonghua Sun1, Shen- Yuan Lee2
1Department of Medical Radiation Sciences, Curtin University; Western Australia-Australia
2Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology; Taichung-Taiwan

Objective: The application of 3-D printing has been increasingly used in medicine, with research showing many applications in cardiovascular disease. This systematic review analyzes those studies published about the applications of 3-D printed, patient-specific models in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
Methods: A search of PubMed/Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify studies investigating the 3-D printing in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Only studies based on patientís medical images were eligible for review, while reports on in vitro phantom or review articles were excluded.
Results: A total of 48 studies met selection criteria for inclusion in the review. A range of patient-specific 3-D printed models of different cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were generated in these studies with most of them being developed using cardiac CT and MRI data, less commonly with 3-D invasive angiographic or echocardiographic images. The review of these studies showed high accuracy of 3-D printed, patient-specific models to represent complex anatomy of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system and depict various abnormalities, especially congenital heart diseases and valvular pathologies. Further, 3-D printing can serve as a useful education tool for both parents and clinicians, and a valuable tool for pre-surgical planning and simulation.
Conclusion: This systematic review shows that 3-D printed models based on medical imaging modalities can accurately replicate complex anatomical structures and pathologies of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system. 3-D printing is a useful tool for both education and surgical planning in these diseases.

Keywords: 3-D printing, anatomy, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, model, simulation


Zhonghua Sun, Shen- Yuan Lee. A systematic review of 3-D printing in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Anatol J Cardiol. 2017; 17(6): 423-435

Corresponding Author: Zhonghua Sun, Australia


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