The Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Review - Cardiovascular Imaging

A comprehensive review of the diagnosis and management of mitral paravalvular leakage

Anatol J Cardiol 2020; 24: 350-360
DOI: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2020.10018
Read: 351 Downloads: 150 Published: 01 July 2021

Mitral paravalvular leaks (PVLs) commonly occur in patients with prosthetic valves. Paravalvular defects may be clinically inconsequential and may aggravate hemolysis or cause heart failure through regurgitation. Accordingly, patients may eventually require intervention such as redo surgery or a transcatheter closure of the defects. The introduction of purpose-specific closure devices and new steerable catheters has opened a new frontier for the transcatheter PVL closure. This mode of treatment is an initial therapy in most centers with experienced structural heart team. However, head-to-head data comparing two treatment modalities (surgery and transcatheter closure) are limited, and the world-wide experience is based on nonrandomized studies. Multimodality imaging, including three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography, facilitates the delineation of mitral PVLs and provides essential data that aids the communication between the members of the structural heart team. In the near future, the success of interventional therapies will most probably increase in patients with mitral PVLs with the introduction of hybrid imaging modalities (echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography, and fluoroscopy). In conclusion, this paper summarizes the etiopathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of mitral PVLs.

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ISSN 2149-2263 EISSN 2149-2271