ISSN 2149-2263 | E-ISSN 2149-2271
The Anatolian Journal of Cardiology - Anatol J Cardiol: 11 (2)
Volume: 11  Issue: 2 - March 2011
1.On improvements, Izmir meeting and policy of the Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Bilgin Timuralp
PMID: 21362591  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.051  Pages 91 - 92
Abstract |Full Text PDF

2.The effects of zoledronic acid on neointimal hyperplasia: a rabbit carotid anastomosis model
Mehmet Güzeloğlu, Mehmet Gül, Buket Reel, İsmail Yürekli, Koray Aykut, Eyüp Hazan
PMID: 21285021  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.026  Pages 93 - 100
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of zoledronic acid (ZA), as a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, on neointimal hyperplasia in rabbit carotid anastomosis model. Methods: New Zealand male rabbits were divided into two groups as placebo and treatment groups in this experimental study. After anesthesia, the right carotid artery of each rabbit was end-to-end anastomosed with an 8/0 polypropylene suture. Left carotid artery was kept as control without any operation. Placebo group (n=6) received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (0.5mL/kg/day/s.c.) for 28 days postoperatively, whereas ZA group (n=6) received ZA (100 µg/kg/day/s.c.) for the same period. After sacrification, the anastomosed and control arteries were isolated. Morphometric and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. Statistical analyses of morphometric and immunohistochemical data were performed using two-way ANOVA and Chi-square test respectively. Results: In PBS group, vascular injury in the anastomosed artery significantly increased the intimal area (anastomosed: 112.51±61.18 µm2*1000 vs. control: 22.62±4.26µm2*1000, p<0.01) and intima/media index (anastomosed: 0.347±0.29 vs. control: 0.075±0.01, p<0.05) compared to control artery. ZA significantly reduced the intimal area (39.29±18.21 µm2*1000, p<0.01) and intima/media index (0.112±0.07, p<0.05) compared to PBS group. Additionally, α-smooth muscle actin immunopositivity was found significantly decreased in anastomosed arteries from ZA group (ZA: 2.33±0.52 vs. PBS: 3.50±0.5, p<0.05). Moreover, intensive gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) immunoreactivities were clearly seen in anastomosed arteries compared to control arteries from PBS group. ZA apparently decreased immunopositivities for gelatinases in anastomosed arteries. Conclusion: ZA might be a promising agent for prevention of neointimal hyperplasia, which is the most significant cause of graft failures in late postoperative period.

3.A comparison of pulmonary function, peripheral and respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in the heart failure patients with different functional classes
Meral Boşnak Güçlü, Deniz İnal İnce, Hülya Arıkan, Sema Savcı, Erol Tülümen, Lale Tokgözoğlu
PMID: 21285020  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.027  Pages 101 - 106
Objective: This cross-sectional, observational study was planned to compare pulmonary function, respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, and functional capacity in different functional classes of heart failure patients. Methods: Thirty-four heart failure patients, in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II and III (68.59±9.84 years, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) =34.24±7.59%) were included. Class II and III patients’ pulmonary function was assessed using spirometry, respiratory muscle strength using a mouth pressure device, functional capacity using six minute walk test (6MWT), quadriceps femoris and biceps brachii muscle strength were evaluated using a hand-held dynamometer, and variables were compared. Student t, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Spearman correlation coefficients were used for statistical analysis. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength between the two groups (p>0.05). The 6MWT distance (328.35±101.56 m; vs. 480.05±104.19 m) quadriceps femoris (218.83±63.62 N; vs. 290.69±115.53 N) and biceps brachii (164.22±44.78 N; vs. 219.19±49.37 N) muscle strength of Class III patients were significantly lower than of Class II patients (p<0.05 for all). The NYHA classification system was significantly correlated with measured and predicted 6MWT distance (r=-0.59, r=-0.65, respectively), biceps brachii muscle strength (r=-0.46, r=-0.40, respectively), and % quadriceps femoris muscle strength (r=-0.43) (p<0.05). Conclusion: Functional capacity and peripheral muscle strength decrease as the illness progresses in heart failure. Pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength are preserved. The NYHA classification system is a reliable method in the detection of changes in functional capacity and peripheral muscle strength. Changes in functional capacity and peripheral muscle strength are consistent with the NYHA classification system.

4.Effects of patient education and counseling about life style on quality of life in patients with
Mehmet Ali Kurçer, Aydan Özbay
PMID: 21285019  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.028  Pages 107 - 113
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of patient education and counseling intervention success on quality of life (QoL) in patients with coronary artery disease patients. Methods: Sample of this study included 82 (80.3%) of total 102 patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease. Patients were older than 18 age and they had no perception and communication problems. QoL was measured by means of the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and then subscale scores were calculated in before getting the education and counseling intervention. Subject of education and counseling intervention consists of healthy nutrition, physical activity, maintaining healthy body weight, smoking and alcohol quit issues. After educations and counseling intervention three months later, Short Form-36 was administered. One way analyses of variance for repeated measures (ANOVAR), Chi-square significance test, t-test and nonparametric tests (Wilcoxon sign and Kruskal Wallis Variance) were used to compare demographic and clinic characteristic values of the patient’s groups. Results: After education and counseling intervention, SF 36 QoL points, mean exercise duration and number of patients with well -adjusted diet program increased, and diastolic blood pressure decreased (p<0.05 for all). However, mean body mass index, mean number of cigarettes and alcohol drinks per day, systolic blood pressure, lipid levels did not significantly change after education and counseling intervention. Conclusion: Education and counseling intervention in patients with coronary artery disease was accompanied by improvement in physical activity, increase in diet compliance level, significantly reduction of diastolic blood pressure and positive increasing trend in 8 scales of SF-36 quality of life scale.

5.Relation of asymmetric dimethylarginine levels with conventional risk score systems in the healthy subjects with positive family history for coronary artery disease
Hulusi Satılmışoğlu, Hakan Özhan, Sinan Albayrak, Ahmet Kaya, İsmail Erden, Mehmet Yazıcı
PMID: 21285018  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.029  Pages 114 - 118
Objective: Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in Turkey and the world. Asymmetric dimethylarginine is the major inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis in humans. It has been shown that increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased atherogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether asymmetric dimethylarginine level is related with conventional risk score systems in subjects who had family history of coronary artery disease. Methods: Fifty two subjects within 20-40 years old of whom first degree relatives had myocardial infarction at young ages and 26 age and sex matched control subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Frequency of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, smoking and serum levels of homocysteine, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and asymmetric dimethylarginine were compared between risk group and control subjects. Relation of asymmetric dimethylarginine level with Framingham and TEKHARF risk scores was also compared. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results: Fasting serum glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference and TEKHARF scores were increased in the subjects who had family history of myocardial infarction. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, hsCRP, homocysteine, creatinine and Framingham risk score were similar in studied groups. Asymmetric dimethylarginine levels were 0.1µmol/L higher in the risk group; however this difference could not reach significance (0.7±0.1 µmol/l vs 0.8±0.1 µmol/l; p=0.061). Conclusion: Measurement of serum asymmetric dimethylarginine levels did not reveal utility in defining conventional coronary artery disease risk score systems in cases that had positive family history. Larger studies including patients with different risk tertiles are needed.

6.Preoperative and intraoperative risk factors affecting mortality after heart transplantation: a single-center experience
Hasan Güngör, Mehmet Fatih Ayık, Sanem Nalbantgil, Serkan Ertugay, Çağatay Engin, Tahir Yağdı, Mehdi Zoghi, Mustafa Özbaran
PMID: 21285017  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.030  Pages 119 - 124
Objective: We retrospectively analyzed case records to identify risk factors for mortality in heart transplant recipients in our center. Methods: Data of 123 patients (mean age 40.6±14 years and 97 male) transplanted from February 1998 to April 2009 were studied and analyzed. Pre- and intra-operative variables of the 73 patients who survived (Group 1, mean age 39.1±14.6, 58 male) and 50 patients who died (Group 2, mean age 42.6±12.9, 39 male) were compared. For statistical analysis Student t, Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests were used. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent risk factors for mortality and survival analysis was accomplished using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Overall mortality in the entire population was 40.6% (50/123). Actuarial survival was 74%, 65%, 51% and 31% at 1, 2, 5 and 10 years respectively. Major causes of death after heart transplantation were infections (30%), right ventricular failure (18%), rejection (12%) and sudden cardiac death (12%). Total ischemic time was 176.7±63.3 minutes (range 90-410 minutes). The total cardiopulmonary by-pass (CPB) time (114.3±27.7 vs 126.9±42.1 min, p=0.05), pre-operative creatinine clearance (81.0±31.5 vs 67.2±33.0 ml/min, p=0.02), urea (45.2±18.6 vs 57.8±35.2 mg/dl, p=0.02), and creatinine (1.01±0.25 vs 1.17±0.36 mg/dl, p=0.05) were significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. Group 2 patients had higher transpulmonary gradient (TPG) (9.21±5.16 vs 12.50±8.26 mmHg, p=0.02) as compared with group 1 patients. Logistic regression analysis revealed that preoperative creatinine clearance (OR 0.989, 95% CI 0.973-1.005, p=0.044), creatinine level (OR 2.028, 95% CI 0.288-14.301, p=0.027), total CPB time (OR 1.013, 95% CI 1.000-1.027, p=0.036), and TPG (OR 1.113, 95% CI 0.992 1.249, p=0.045) were the independent predictors of mortality. Conclusion: Our data showed that TPG, total CPB time, pre-transplant renal dysfunction are pre-operative and intra-operative risk factors for mortality after heart transplantation.

7.Prevalence and distribution of structural heart diseases in high and low risk pregnancies
Nazan Özbarlas, Sevcan Erdem, Osman Küçükosmanoğlu, Gülşah Seydaoğlu, Cansun Demir, Cüneyt Evrüke, Fatma Tuncay Özgünen
PMID: 21303759  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.032  Pages 125 - 130
Objective: To establish and compare the frequency of intrauterine congenital heart defects in high-risk and low-risk pregnancies for congenital heart diseases. Methods: Records of 3782 patients who underwent fetal echocardiography at the Pediatric Cardiology Unit were reviewed for reasons of referral and results of echocardiography retrospectively. The categorical variables between the groups were analyzed using a Chi-square test. Results: Structural heart defects were found in 213 (5.6%) fetuses in both high and low risk groups. Most common defects were ventricular septal defect (36.2%) and atrioventricular septal defect (14.1%). Frequency of congenital heart diseases was 7.8% (169 fetuses) in high-risk group: 4.1% were complex, 2.3% significant and 1.4% were minor. In low-risk group, the frequency was 2.7% (44 fetuses): 0.6% were complex, 0.8% significant and 1.3% were minor. In this group, rates of congenital defects were high regarding particular reasons: intrauterine fetal death in previous pregnancy (6.3%), abnormal first or second trimester screening tests (4.3%), and multiple gestations (3.4%). The sensitivity and specificity of fetal echocardiography according to transthoracic echocardiography were found to be 86% and 99%, respectively. Conclusion: Congenital heart diseases rate, as expected, was found to be higher in high-risk group. However, regarding intrauterine fetal death in previous pregnancy, abnormal first or second trimester screening tests and multiple gestation, no statistically significant difference was observed between low-risk and high-risk groups. Therefore, we suggest the routine use of fetal echocardiography in cases we have mentioned above if the staff and equipment of the pediatric cardiology clinic are eligible.

8.Prenatal echocardiographic diagnosis of cardiac right/left axis and malpositions according to standardized Cordes technique
Süheyla Özkutlu, Özlem Mehtap Bostan, Özgür Deren, Lütfü Önderoğlu, Gülsev Kale, Şafak Güçer, Diclehan Orhan
PMID: 21303758  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.033  Pages 131 - 136
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate distinguishing the right / left side of the fetus, cardiac axis and position according to the standardized Cordes technique in 20 cases with cardiac malposition. Methods: We studied retrospectively 1536 cases whose fetal echocardiographic examinations were performed between 1999 and 2006 in prenatal cardiology unit. Among these, cardiac malpositions were determined in 20 cases. The cardiac axis and position were determined according to the Cordes technique. All cases were followed-up by serial fetal echocardiograms until birth or intrauterine death occurred. In cases of intrauterine death, an autopsy was performed. After birth, physical and echocardiographic examinations were done and prenatal and postnatal diagnoses were compared. Results: Of 1536 fetal echocardiograms performed, 144 revealed congenital heart diseases (9.4%), among these cases 20 were diagnosed with cardiac malposition. Of cases with cardiac malposition, 16 had congenital heart disease, and four had extracardiac malformation. There were six cases of isolated dextrocardia, three cases of situs inversus totalis, six cases of situs ambiguous, and one case of situs inversus with isolated levocardia. Of four cases with extracardiac malformations, two cases had mesoposition, one had dextroposition, and one had extreme levoposition. In six cases the autopsy findings were the same as that their prenatal echocardiographic findings. When postnatal echocardiographic results of the remaining cases with cardiac malposition due to congenital heart disease were compared with prenatal diagnoses, the same echocardiographic findings were verified. Conclusion: The fetal right/left axis must be determined correctly for the accurate diagnosis of cardiac malpositions. Therefore, we recommend that Cordes technique provides a simple and reliable determination of the fetal right/left axis and fetal situs.

9.Counseling and outcomes of antenatally diagnosed congenital heart anomalies in Turkey
Ali Gedikbaşı, Kazım Öztarhan, Gökhan Yıldırım, Ahmet Gül, Yavuz Ceylan
PMID: 21342864  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.035  Pages 137 - 145
Objective: To determine the clinical outcomes and decisions of families of fetuses with prenatally-diagnosed cardiac abnormalities. Methods: Prenatally diagnosed cases (n=155) with congenital heart disease were retrospectively categorized according to the Allan-Huggon grading system: Group A (cardiac disease associated with severe / lethal extracardiac disease); Group B1 (low risk with a postnatal prognosis); Group B2 (moderate risk, amenable to surgical repair with a low mortality); and Group B3 (high risk, associated with high mortality after surgery). Neonatal outcomes, including termination of pregnancy, were recorded for 18 months of follow-up after counseling the parents. Student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U, Pearson’s Chi-square test and Fischer’s exact Chi-square test were used for statistical analyses. Results: One hundred forty-five cases completed follow up. Thirty-nine cases (Group A) were associated with extracardiac lethal defects and the pregnancies were terminated; these cases were excluded from statistical evaluation. Twenty parents in Group B3 opted also for termination. The survival rates of ongoing pregnancies after 18 months of follow-up between the three cardiac abnormality Groups (Group B1, n=37; Group B2, n=12; and Group B3, n=37) were 89.2%, 66.7%, and 13.5%, respectively. Significance was present between the survival rates of the three Groups [Group B3 vs. Group B1: p=0.0001; OR: 52.8 (12.9-214.5); Group B3 vs. Group B2: p=0.0009; OR: 12.8 (2.8-58.9); Group B2 vs. Group B1: p=0.087; OR: 4.12 (0.84-20.2)]. Conclusion: Our practice and the findings reported herein support the efficacy of this staging system and counseling parents of fetuses for congenital heart diseases.

10.Gastrointestinal system malformations in children are associated with congenital heart defects
Utku Arman Örün, Meki Bilici, Fulya G. Demirçeken, Mahya Tosun, Burhan Öcal, Yusuf Hakan Çavuşoğlu, Derya Erdoğan, Filiz Şenocak, Selmin Karademir
PMID: 21342865  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.034  Pages 146 - 149
Objective: To determine the frequency of congenital heart defects (CHD) in children with gastrointestinal malformations (GISM) and mortality rates in patients with GISM. Methods: Two hundred and forty two consecutive children patients with GISM followed up in Pediatric Surgery Clinics of our hospital were examined for cardiovascular anomaly by the Department of Pediatric Cardiology, and the CHD incidence was investigated by examining the records of the patients retrospectively. Chi-square test was used for the statistical analysis of data. Results: Two hundred and forty two patients with gastrointestinal system malformations were included in the study. Of 242 patients, 135 (55.8%) were male and 107 (44.2%) were female, and their age range was 0-15 years. The most frequent GISM were anorectal malformations (43.2%), atresia involving stomach, ileum or colon (21%) and esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula (18.3%). Congenital heart defects were observed in 28.5% of the participants. The most frequent defects were as follows; atrial septal defect (31 patients, 44.9%) a, ventricular septal defect (17 patients, 24.6%) and patent ductus arteriosus (5 patients, 7.2%). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in mortality rate in patients with CHD (16.7%) and without CHD (13.3%) undergoing operations for GISM. Conclusion: We would like to emphasize the importance of the earliest possible cardiological evaluation of all patients with gastrointestinal system malformations.

11.Effects of fluorosis on QT dispersion, heart rate variability and echocardiographic parameters in children
Selmin Karademir, Mustafa Akçam, Ayça Esra Kuybulu, Şeref Olgar, Faruk Öktem
PMID: 21342861  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.038  Pages 150 - 155
Objective: Chronic fluoride poisoning is called fluorosis. The aim of the study was to investigate effects of fluorosis on cardiovascular system in children by measuring QT dispersion (QTd), corrected QT dispersion (QTcd), heart rate variability (HRV) and echocardiography findings. Methods: Thirty-five children with dental fluorosis and 26 children as control group were included in this cross-sectional study. Dean index was used for the clinical diagnosis. The fluoride levels of subjects measured by ion electrode method in spot urine higher than 0.6 ppm were included in the study. Serum electrolytes and thyroid function tests were analyzed. Electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography and 24-hour ambulatory Holter monitorizations were applied, and all the data were analyzed for measuring HRV, and calculation of QTd and QTcd intervals. Corrected QT (QTc) intervals were determined with the Bazzett formula. Difference between the longest and shortest intervals was considered as dispersion. Statistical analysis was performed Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson correlation test. Results: Low free thyroxine hormone (FT4) (Control Group, Group 2 1.11 (0.85-1.64) ng/dL, 0.96 (0.85-1.11) ng/dL, p<0.05), calcium (Control Group, Group 1, 2, 9.80 (9.30-10.70) mg/dL, 9.60 (8.90-10.70) mg/dL, 9.50 (8.90-10.10) mg/dL, p<0.05) and high serum sodium levels (Control Group, Group 2 139 (136-142) mEq/L, 141 (138-148) mEq/L, p<0.01), increased QT (Control Group, Group 2 329.8 (300.0-363.5) msec, 351.8 (318.0-372.0) msec, p<0.05) and QTc intervals (Control Group, Group I2 390.6 (309.0-418.5) msec, 366.8 (318.2-468.5) msec, p<0.05) were found in subjects with fluorosis. No significant difference was found with respect to echocardiography and HRV variables. Conclusion: Endemic fluorosis is a risk factor for decrease in calcium and FT4 levels, increase in sodium levels and QT prolongation. These findings might be related with some cardiovascular system dysfunctions such as arrhythmias or syncope. Subjects with fluorosis should be monitored in terms of long QT and QTc intervals.

12.Is EQ-5D a valid quality of life instrument in patients with acute coronary syndrome?
Hatice Kahyaoğlu Süt, Serap Ünsar
PMID: 21342862  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.037  Pages 156 - 162
Objective: To evaluate the construct validity of the Turkish version of the EQ-5D in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Methods: The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study at the Trakya University Hospital between February and May 2008. All patients completed the Turkish version of the EQ-5D and MacNew heart-related quality of life scale. Construct validity of the EQ-5D was assessed according to relationships with MacNew subscales by using Spearman rank correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Results: One hundred and twenty-two patients responded to the instruments. Mean age was 62.9±9.3 years and male gender (88 or 72.1%) was dominant. Mean score of the EQ-5D index was 0.79±0.32, while the global score of MacNew was 5.01±1.16. The correlation coefficients of the EQ-5D index score with the MacNew subscales ranged from 0.557 to 0.721, with EQ-5D VAS score ranging from 0.297 to 0.484 (p<0.001 for all of them). According to the stepwise regression model MacNew global score was found to be significantly effective factor on EQ-5D index score (β=0.188; 95% CI: 0.152-0.224; p<0.001). Conclusion: The Turkish version of the EQ-5D-based utility score seems to be a valid instrument in the assessment of quality of life studies in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

13.Beyond lowering LDL cholesterol
Özgür Bayturan, Ozan Ütük, Murat Tuzcu
PMID: 21342860  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.039  Pages 163 - 167
Compelling evidence from randomized controlled studies demonstrated the crucial role of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the prevention of vascular events. However, not all patients with low LDL-C levels show similar reduction in event rates. The residual risk factors associated with ongoing vascular events despite achieving low LDL-C levels remain to be elucidated. New data suggest that beyond statin therapy, inflammatory mediators, high non-HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol or apolipoprotein B, small dense LDL-C, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and lifestyle features may have impact on residual vascular risk. In this review, we discussed the significance of identifying these residual risk factors and developing new treatment strategies to further decrease vascular events. The importance of imaging arterial wall to evaluate the effect of various medical therapies has also stated.

14.Circadian blood pressure pattern and cardiac autonomic functions: different aspects of same pathophysiology
Sercan Okutucu, Uğur Nadir Karakulak, Giray Kabakçı
PMID: 21303760  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.031  Pages 168 - 173
Arterial blood pressure fluctuates with a pattern that follows a circadian rhythm, with a peak in the early morning hours and a trough during nighttime. Nocturnal dipping of arterial blood pressure is part of this normal circadian pattern, and its absence, which is called non-dipping is associated with more severe end-organ damage and increased risk of cardiovascular events, especially in hypertensive patients. Although pathologic mechanisms are still unclear, it has been suggested that non-dippers show impairment in the autonomic system functions that include abnormal parasympathetic and sympathetic activities. Several studies have examined the role of the autonomic nervous system in the non-dipping phenomenon. In this paper, we aimed to review the studies evaluating the relationship between circadian arterial blood pressure pattern and indices of cardiac autonomic functions.

15.Scientific misconduct: definition, patterns and possible outcomes of duplicate publication
Fatma Suna Kıraç
PMID: 21342863  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.036  Pages 174 - 178
Abstract |Full Text PDF

16.When was ventricular septal defect first defined?
Ahmet Tulga Ulus, Murat Songur, Esin Kahya
PMID: 21342858  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.041  Page 179
Abstract |Full Text PDF

17.Combined congenital coronary artery anomaly: dual left anterior descending coronary artery and absence of left circumflex artery
Ulaş Bildirici, Teoman Kılıç, Dilek Ural, Olcay Bulut, Ertan Ural
PMID: 21362600  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.042  Pages 180 - 181
Abstract |Full Text PDF

18.Successful treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation and infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma with alpha-interferon
Sonay İncesoy Özdemir, Ceyhun Bozkurt, Utku Arman Örün, Gürses Şahin, Nazmiye Yüksek, Semra Çetinkaya, Ulya Ertem
PMID: 21362599  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.043  Pages 181 - 183
Abstract |Full Text PDF

19.Echocardiographic diagnosis of atrioventricular septal defect without primum atrial septal defect: a relatively “common” congenital heart defect in Down’s syndrome
Sulafa Ali
PMID: 21362598  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.044  Pages 183 - 185
Abstract |Full Text PDF

20.Cardiovascular consequences of sleep apnea: III-Impact of continuous positive airway pressure treatment
Dursun oğlu, Neşe Dursunoğlu
PMID: 21362597  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.045  Page 186
Abstract |Full Text PDF

21.Prof. Dr. Altan Onat as a philosopher of science and a witness of modern cardiology’s recent history
Mehmet Özkan, Cihangir Kaymaz
PMID: 21342859  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.040  Pages 187 - 192
Abstract |Full Text PDF

22.An unusual coronary artery anomaly
Orhan Doğdu, Ahmet Çelik, Mikail Yarlıoğlueş, İdris Ardıç, Namık Kemal Eryol
PMID: 21362596  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.046  Page E6
Abstract |Full Text PDF

23.Catheter entrapment around the Chiari Network during percutaneous atrialseptal defect closure
Alper Aydın, Tayfun Gürol, Mustafa Serdar Yılmazer, Bahadır Dağdeviren
PMID: 21362595  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.047  Pages E6 - E7
Abstract |Full Text PDF

24.Left ventricular apical thrombus formed in a case with preserved left ventricular systolic function
Gülay Özkeçeci, Hüseyin Dursun, Cevdet Koçoğulları, Erkan Borazan, Ersel Onrat
PMID: 21362594  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.048  Pages E7 - E8
Abstract |Full Text PDF

25.Interrupted aortic arch with intact ventricular septum: a multidetector CT angiography evaluation
Özlem Barutçu Saygılı, Arda Saygılı, Ersin Erek, Ayşe Sarıoğlu, Tayyar Sarıoğlu
PMID: 21362593  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.049  Pages E8 - E9
Abstract |Full Text PDF

26.Sternal wire reaction with wire's skin exposure and its treatment in a patient who underwent coronary bypass surgery
Orhan Gökalp, İsmail Yürekli, Tevfik Güneş, Mert Kestelli, Levent Yılık, Banu Lafçı, Barçın Özcem, Ali Gürbüz
PMID: 21362592  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.050  Pages E9 - E10
Abstract |Full Text PDF

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