ISSN 2149-2263 | E-ISSN 2149-2271
The Anatolian Journal of Cardiology - Anatol J Cardiol: 11 (3)
Volume: 11  Issue: 3 - May 2011
1.New improvements and disciplines in the Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Bilgin Timuralp
PMID: 21501983  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.075  Pages 193 - 194
Abstract |Full Text PDF

2.A relationship between CRP, adiponectin and Gensini score in the patients with coronary artery disease
Dursun oğlu, Hidayet Göksoy, Mehmet Öztürk, Simin Rota
PMID: 21421513  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.052  Pages 195 - 200
Objective: We aimed to evaluate serum adiponectin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the different groups of patients with angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: Overall 100 patients (80 males, 20 females) with CAD (≥ 50% stenosis) and 45 controls (25 males, 20 females) with normal coronary arteries were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Gensini score was used for evaluation of the severity of coronary lesions on the angiogram. A relationship between Gensini score and serum CRP and adiponectin levels was evaluated by a logistic regression analysis. Results: Mean age of the patients (60.5±10.2 years) was significantly higher than of the controls (55.6±10.4 years, p=0.01). While serum adiponectin levels in CAD patients (2.1±1.2 µmg/dl) were significantly lower than in the controls (3.3±1.8 µmg/dl, p=0.01); serum CRP levels of the patients (2.8±1.5 mg/dl) were significantly higher than of the controls (0.9±0.4 mg/dl). Serum adiponectin and CRP levels were not significantly different between the CAD subgroups (p>0.05). Gensini score was related with serum CRP (odds ratio: 0.98, 95% CI: 1.05-1.35, p=0.01) and adiponectin levels (odds ratio: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.10-1.25, p=0.01) by a logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: While serum CRP levels are increased in CAD patients comparing with the controls; serum adiponectin levels are decreased significantly. Serum CRP and adiponectin levels are related to coronary lesions severity on the angiogram.

3.Is there any relationship between coronary artery disease and postprandial triglyceride levels?
İnci Aslı Atar, İlyas Atar, Alp Aydınalp, Çağatay Ertan, Hüseyin Bozbaş, Bülent Özin, Aylin Yıldırır, Haldun Müderrisoğlu
PMID: 21421512  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.053  Pages 201 - 206
Objective: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between postprandial triglyceride (PPTG) levels and coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: A total of 80 patients were included in this prospective cohort study. Oral lipid loading was used in order to measure PPTG levels. In the fasting state and after the high fat breakfast, triglyceride levels were measured by enzymatic methods at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th hours. We made subgroup analysis to show the effects of lipid loading on triglyceride levels in patients with and without fasting hypertriglyceridemia. We evaluated triglyceride levels and changes of triglyceride levels in percentages after lipid loading using a general linear model for repeated measures. Sample size analysis was performed. Results: Baseline clinical, demographic and laboratory characteristics of both groups were similar. The peak triglyceride levels were seen at the 4th hour in both groups. Triglyceride levels were significantly increased after lipid-rich-breakfast loading compared to baseline levels in both groups (p<0.001) but these changes were not significant (p=0.279). In patients with elevated fasting triglyceride levels, the area under the plasma triglyceride concentration curve was significantly larger in CAD group than control group (334±103 vs. 233±58 mg/dl, p=0.02). Conclusion: Our data show that in patients who have a high fasting triglyceride level, high levels of PPTG may be related to CAD, however high PPTG levels are not related to CAD in patients with normal fasting levels of triglyceride.

4.Pravastatin therapy fails to suppress post-PCI inflammatory response measured by serum neopterin and CRP levels
Hüseyin Bozbaş, Serdar Mermer, Aylin Yıldırır, Didem Konaş, İlyas Atar, Alp Aydınalp, Bülent Özin
PMID: 21421511  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.054  Pages 207 - 212
Objective: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is known to induce both local and systemic inflammatory states. In addition to lowering lipid levels, statins exert well-proven anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the effects of pravastatin on serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and neopterin levels in the short term after elective PCI. Methods: In this randomized prospective study, 93 patients undergoing elective PCI were enrolled. Group 1 (n=30) received pravastatin at a dose of 10 mg/day, Group 2 (n=29) was given 40 mg/day, and Group 3 (n=34) served as the control group and received no lipid-lowering drugs. Blood samples were drawn before and after PCI to measure serum CRP and neopterin levels. Differences among the groups for continuous variables were evaluated by the ANOVA and the Kruskal-Wallis test as appropriate. The Chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical variables. Results: Demographic features and the characteristics of the PCI, including the number of vessels and lesions and the duration and number of inflations, did not differ among groups (p>0.05). Serum CRP and neopterin levels were significantly increased after PCI (p<0.001). Mean serum neopterin levels before and after the PCI were as follows: Group 1: 13.3±5.9 vs 22.8±15.4 nmol/L, Group 2: 16.9±10.2 vs 22.0±14.9 nmol/L, controls: 15.2±11.9 and 18.8±11.5nmol/L. Prior pravastatin therapy had no significant effect on these inflammatory markers (F=0.5, p=0.6). Conclusion: Percutaneous coronary intervention induces a pronounced inflammatory response. The pre-procedural administration of 2 different doses of pravastatin seems not enough to suppress this inflammation at the short-term follow-up. Further trials are needed to clarify this issue.

5.Relationship between TIMI frame count and admission glucose values in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction patients who underwent successful primary percutaneous intervention
Meltem Ege, Ümit Güray, Yeşim Güray, Mehmet Birhan Yılmaz, Burcu Demirkan, Ali Şaşmaz, Şule Korkmaz
PMID: 21421510  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.055  Pages 213 - 217
Objective: Admission hyperglycemia is associated with poor prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Final Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame counts of culprit coronary arteries may show significant variability despite successful coronary reperfusion after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this prospective observational study, relationship between final TIMI frame counts of the culprit coronary artery and admission glucose values was investigated in patients who underwent successful primary PCI due to acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: During a 6- month period of time, 73 non-diabetic patients presented with acute STEMI who have undergone primary PCI with final TIMI 3 flow were consecutively included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups according to final TIMI frame counts. Group 1 (n=53) consisted of patients with final TIMI frame counts of the culprit coronary artery within the two standard deviation of predefined values and Group 2 (n=20) consisted of those with higher TIMI frame counts. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U tests and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Despite similar fasting glucose values, admission glucose levels were significantly higher in Group 2 as compared to Group 1 (138 [114-165] vs. 123 [97-143] mg/dl, p=0.03). In whole group, admission glucose values were significantly correlated with corrected TIMI frame counts of culprit coronary arteries (r=0.30, p=0.01). In addition, there were significant association between admission glucose values and peak creatine kinase-MB (r=0.36, p=0.007) values as well as left ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.43, p=0.009). In multiple linear regression analysis, only admission glucose value was found to be significantly related to the final TIMI frame count of the culprit artery (β=0.04, 95% CI: 0.02-0.085, p=0.04). Conclusion: High admission glucose values were significantly associated with impaired coronary flow even after successful primary PCI in non-diabetic patients with STEMI.

6.Radionuclide evaluation of lung perfusion after transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus: analysis of frequently used two different types of coils
Tuğçin Bora Polat, Ahmet Çelebi, Sevim Hacımahmutoğlu, Celal Akdeniz, Abdullah Erdem, Fatih Fırat
PMID: 21501996  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.062  Pages 218 - 224
Objective: Impaired left lung perfusion (LLP) has been described after transcatheter closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). In this study, we aimed to evaluate lung perfusion scans (LPSs) following occlusion of PDA with two frequently used coils: Cook detachable coil and Gianturco coil. Methods: A prospective study of 89 patients who underwent PDA occlusion using the Cook coils in 49 and the Gianturco coils in 40, was conducted. LPSs were performed after a median period of 18 months. The relationships between the LPSs and continuous variables were assessed by Pearson correlation analysis and the cut-off value of the best correlated parameters to predict abnormal LPSs obtained by the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Decreased left lung perfusion (LLP) was found in 13 patients including 10 after using Cook coils and 3 after using Gianturco coils (p=0.077). LLP values were significantly correlated with the loops deployed at the pulmonary side, coil/ductal diameter ratio and number of coils deployed (p=0.002, p=0.006 and p=0.009, respectively). Number of loops deployed at the pulmonary side >1.4 (specificity 77%, sensitivity 85%, area under the ROC curve 0.804, 95%CI 0.661-0.947, p<0.001) and first coil/ductal diameter ratio >1.85 (specificity 70%, sensitivity 77%, area under the ROC curve 0.747, 95%CI 0.423-0.790, p<0.005) were the best discriminative cut-off values of decreased LLP. Conclusion: Impaired LLP may appear following transcatheter closure of PDA with either Cook detachable coils or Gianturco coils. This situation may be complicated with loops deployed at the pulmonary side, the use of relatively large size of coil with respect to the ductal diameter and the use of multiple coils.

7.Natural progression of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes: a four-year follow-up study
Soha M Abd El Dayem, Ahmed A. Battah, Randa A. Soliman
PMID: 21466989  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.061  Pages 224 - 231
Objective: To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 1 diabetic patients who were followed up for 4 years to shed further light on the natural progression of cardiac autonomic neuropathy. Methods: It is a prospective cohort observational study, consisted of 57 patients who were originally studied using the standard tests proposed by Ewing and Clarke (1985). At two years follow up, 46 patients were reevaluated, 55 patients from the original study were reevaluated after another 2 years for the 3rd time using the same protocol. The control group comprised 30 age and sex matched healthy volunteers. McNemar test, ANOVA for repeated measurements, paired t test and unpaired t test were used for statistical analyses. Results: The prevalence of established cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) at the beginning was 14%. Q-Tc intervals were found to be significantly higher in patients with abnormal cardiovascular reflex (CVRs) in the 2nd examination (0.4±0.04 vs 0.5±0.05 sec, p=0.006). Eighteen patients showed deterioration of their CVRs test between 1st and 3rd examination. There was deterioration of their glycemic control guided by glycosylated hemoglobin (8.5±1.4 vs 9.9±1.5%, p=0.05*) and albumin/creatinine ratio (4.4±4.0 vs 28.2±28.0 mg/g creatinine, p= 0.04). On the other hand, 12 patients showed regression of their CVRs test. Only their insulin dose showed significant decrease (1.8±1.3 vs 1.1±0.3 dose/kg, p=0.02). Conclusion: The prevalence of established CAN in diabetic patients is high at the beginning of the study. Glycosylated hemoglobin, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly increased in diabetics with deterioration of their CAN. However, the dose of insulin was significantly decreased in diabetics with regression of their CAN.

8.Effects of salbutamol given by metered-dose inhaler on dispersion of ventricular repolarization
Tuğçin Bora Polat, Eylem Ulaş Saz, Mustafa Atilla Nursoy
PMID: 21501995  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.063  Pages 232 - 236
Objective: Salbutamol has previously been shown to increase the QT dispersion (QTd), which may be associated with high risk of cardiac arrhythmia in asthmatics. Cardiac effects of salbutamol occur in dose-related manner and salbutamol dose given by metered-dose inhaler (MDI) during acute asthma attack is commonly lower than the dose given by nebulizer. This prospective cohort study aimed to assess the effect of salbutamol given by MDI on QTd in the course of moderate acute asthma attack. Methods: Thirty-two children, between 5-15 years of age, who were able to perform spirometric maneuvers and salbutamol administration by MDI through the spacer, were enrolled. Salbutamol was administered at a dose of 50 µg/kg three times at 15-20 minute intervals. Clinical features, spirometric parameters and QT measurements from the standard electrocardiograms were studied at baseline and 15 minute after the third inhalation of salbutamol. The relation between the continuous variables was evaluated by using paired Student’s t-test. Results: Overall, treatments were well-tolerated, significant improvement of pulmonary index scores and spirometric parameters were observed after treatment. No significant difference was observed between the pre and post-treatment values in QTd (30.4±5.6 ms; 33.7±6.2 ms, p=0.086) and corrected QTd (38.8±6.4 ms; 40.7±7.7 ms, p=0.18). Conclusion: Salbutamol administered using metered dose inhaler showed satisfying clinical improvement with notably lower doses than the dose given by nebulizer and does not affect ventricular repolarization in children with moderate acute asthmatic attack.

9.Demonstration of Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus in atherosclerotic coronary arteries, nonrheumatic calcific aortic and rheumatic stenotic mitral valves by polymerase chain reaction
Ayşen Bayram, Mustafa Bilge Erdoğan, Fahriye Ekşi, Birol Yamak
PMID: 21466993  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.057  Pages 237 - 243
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bacterial and viral infectious agents can be demonstrated in atherosclerotic lesions of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) as well as in stenotic aortic and mitral valves from patients undergoing heart valve replacement. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the presence of Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was investigated by polymerase chain reaction in atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic vascular samples taken from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery due to CAD, and from patients undergoing aortic (AVR) and/or mitral valve replacement (MVR) secondary to valvular stenosis. For statistical analyses ANOVA, Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test were used. Results: The presence of C. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, and CMV in atherosclerotic versus non-atherosclerotic samples was as follows: 30% vs. 16.7% (p=0.222), 6.7% vs. 3.3% (p=0.554), and 10% vs. 0% (p=0.076), respectively. In valve group, same pathogens were present in AVR and MVR patients as follows: 24.2% vs. 21.4% (p=0.773), 9.1% vs. 7.1% (p=0.758), and 21.2% vs. 11.9% (p=0.275). EBV DNA was not detected in any of vascular specimens, but in one (3%) patient with AVR (p=0.256). Conclusion: Our results suggest that C. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, and CMV are present with similar frequency both in atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic vessels. We conclude that although non-atherosclerotic, vascular samples of CAD patients are invaded by infectious agents as like as atherosclerotic vessels. We further conclude that C. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, and CMV are present in stenotic aortic and mitral valves and atherosclerotic tissues with similar frequency indicating that atherosclerosis and valvular stenosis might share a common etiology related to infection.

10.Smoking cessation in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases
Zeynep Pınar Önen, Elif Şen, Banu Eriş Gülbay, Ayperi Öztürk, Öznur Akkoca Yıldız, Turan Acıcan
PMID: 21466992  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.058  Pages 244 - 249
Objective: To determine the smoking cessation rates of outpatients with cardiopulmonary disease and the differences between non-cardiopulmonary diseases. Methods: Two hundred and two active smokers with comorbid diseases were prospectively evaluated between September 2004 and January 2008 in this observational study. All of the patients answered Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence with a regular questionnaire of general characteristics. Behavioral counseling therapies were administered to all of the subjects. Nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion or combination therapies were the pharmacological therapies after running the baseline spirometry and carbon monoxide oximetry tests. Subjects were classified as patients with cardiopulmonary disease (124) and non-cardiopulmonary diseases (78), based on medical history. Student t and Chi-square tests were used for statistical analyses. Results: The age of smoking was similar but total amount of smoked tobacco was higher (p<0.05) in the cardiopulmonary diseases group. In this group, the main smoking cessation reason was the existing disease (51%) (p<0.05). There was no other significant difference between two groups including treatment protocols. The smoking cessation rates were less (40%) with high relapses (12%) in cardiopulmonary diseases group (p<0.01 and p=0.01 respectively). In the subgroup analysis, treatment procedures were equivalent (p>0.05). Conclusion: Results of this analysis confirm that, tobacco dependence is still a severe but necessary condition for the patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Additionally neither of the treatment protocols was superior to the others.

11.Comparison of ultrasonically activated scalpel and traditional technique in radial artery harvesting; an electron microscopic evaluation
Mert Dumantepe, Tamer Kehlibar, Ahmet Ümit Güllü, Yücesin Arslan, Mehmet Yılmaz, Kazım Berköz, İbrahim Arif Tarhan, Azmi Özler
PMID: 21466994  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.056  Pages 250 - 256
Objective: Use of the radial artery (RA) as a conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has become increasingly popular in recent years. The aim of this prospective randomized study is to determine how the endothelial wall and blood flow of RA are differently affected with the usages of ultrasonic scalpel and conventional electrocautery in addition to effects of hypothermia and storage solutions. Histopathologic study was achieved by electron microscope to evaluate endothelium of the grafts. Methods: Between 2008 and 2009, 182 patients with coronary artery diseases were operated for coronary artery revascularization. The radial arteries were harvested for 40 of these patients and divided into two groups depending on the use of the ultrasonic cautery (UC) (n=20) and the high-frequency electrocautery (EC) (n=20). Patients were divided into two subgroups according to the storage media of the graft. RA was preserved in situ at room temperature (Group 1) and normothermic organ bath (NOB) (Group 2). Harvesting time, use of hemostatic clips, frequency of spasm, in situ free flow, temperature and endothelial damage were compared between the two groups. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA, Friedman and unpaired t tests. Results: In all groups, blood flows were significantly decreased as parallel to the local temperatures. Second and third phase flows were similar in group EC1 and UC1 (p>0.05). Free flow was increased in group UC+NOB when comparing with only EC group (60.4±9.83 ml/min and 40.8±7.50 ml/min, p<0.001), whereas the graft preparing time “t2” was shorter in group EC than UC (10.9±2.42 min and 15.2±1.31 min, p<0.01). Nonetheless scoring of the groups in terms of endothelial cell structure and mitochondrial morphological changes did not show any significant difference. Conclusion: If endothelial integrity of the RA can be preserved along with the application of systemic temperature (NOB), regardless of harvesting technique, it provides better flow rates.

12.Comparison of the effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane on myocardial protection in coronary bypass surgery
Dilek Ceyhan, Belkıs Tanrıverdi, Ayten Bilir
PMID: 21466991  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.059  Pages 257 - 262
Objective: The aim of this prospective randomized study was to compare the myocardial protective effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane during coronary bypass surgery. Methods: After induction of general anesthesia with etomidate 0.3 mg/kg, a bolus dose of pancuronium 0.1 mg/kg and remifentanil 1 mcg/kg was administered. For the maintenance of anesthesia, patients received either sevoflurane (n=20) at 2-4% or isoflurane (n=20) at 1-2%. Arterial blood samples were obtained as follows: before induction of anesthesia, after aortic unclamping, at postoperative period. Troponin-T, creatine kinase (CK), and creatine kinase-MB (CKMB) values were measured in all obtained samples. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA analysis and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Heart rate was significantly higher in the sevoflurane group during the aortic side-clamp period, at the 10th minute and 20th minute after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) ending. The CK-MB values at 24th postoperative hour in the sevoflurane group were found to be significantly lower from the isoflurane group. The troponin-T values following the removal of the cross-clamp (1.015 (0.935-1.850) ng/ml vs 1.469 (1.290-1.645) ng/ml, p<0.001) and those at the 24th postoperative hour (5.345±0.654 ng/ml vs 8.715±1.020 ng/ml, p<0.001) were significantly lower in the sevoflurane group when compared to those in the isoflurane group. Conclusion: Sevoflurane provides a better myocardial protection than isoflurane, as may be inferred by the lower levels of the myocardial injury markers troponin-T and CK-MB observed with sevoflurane.

13.Selection of candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy: late gadolinium enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance as a new and promising predictor of intraventricular dyssynchrony
Emre Gürel, Kürşat Tigen
PMID: 21466990  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.060  Pages 263 - 268
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an important therapeutic option for patients with intraventricular conduction delay and has been shown to reduce mortality and morbidity in selected heart failure patients. Several echocardiographic methods have been proposed to define intraventricular delay and to select candidates for CRT, such as color coded tissue Doppler echocardiography and speckle tracking. Since, up to 30% of these carefully selected patients do not receive benefit; predictors of response to CRT still remain a topic of ongoing investigations. Recently, myocardial fibrosis defined by late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has been introduced as promising predictor of both intraventricular dyssynchrony and response to CRT. The focus of the present review is the major echocardiographic modalities to select CRT candidates, the potential role of cardiac fibrosis detected by CMR in this respect, and the possible relation of it with the presence of intraventricular dyssynchrony.

14.Epidemiology, risk analysis and clinical outcomes of acute myocardial infarction in Trinidad
Kameel Mungrue, Cherisse Mootoosingh, Savera Ramsingh
PMID: 21501994  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.064  Pages 269 - 270
Abstract |Full Text PDF

15.Transcatheter closure of a ruptured sinus Valsalva via retrograde approach
Hürkan Kurşaklıoğlu, Cem Barçın, Oben Baysan, Atila İyisoy, Turgay Çelik, Sedat Köse
PMID: 21501993  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.065  Pages 271 - 272
Abstract |Full Text PDF

16.Cannabis: a rare trigger of premature myocardial infarction
Yiğit Çanga, Damirbek Osmonov, Mehmet Baran Karataş, Gündüz Durmuş, Erkan İlhan, Veli Kırbaş
PMID: 21501992  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.066  Pages 272 - 274
Abstract |Full Text PDF

17.Transcatheter closure of coronary artery fistula with an Amplatzer Duct Occluder II in a symptomatic infant
Tevfik Karagöz, Işıl Yıldırım, Alpay Çeliker
PMID: 21501991  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.067  Pages 274 - 275
Abstract |Full Text PDF

18.Aplastic anemia and clopidogrel/ Nonfatal aplastic anemia associated with clopidogrel
Sinem Civriz Bozdağ, Muhit Özcan
PMID: 21501990  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.068  Pages 276 - 277
Abstract |Full Text PDF

19.Intramyocardial fissure
Yalçın Velibey, Seçkin Satılmış, Metin Çağdaş, Servet Altay, Özge Güzelburç, Dilay Satılmış, Kemal Yeşilçimen, Mehmet Eren
PMID: 21501988  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.070  Page E11
Abstract |Full Text PDF

20.Premature coronary artery disease in a patient with Wolfram syndrome
Necla Özer, Sercan Okutucu, Kadri Murat Gürses
PMID: 21501987  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.071  Pages E11 - E12
Abstract |Full Text PDF

21.A 23-year patency of a saphenous vein graft in a patient with diabetes mellitus
Taner Ulus, Hande Özduman, Yüksel Çavuşoğlu
PMID: 21501986  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.072  Page E12
Abstract |Full Text PDF

22.Coronary aneurysm and factor V Leiden mutation: A coincidence or an association?
Mustafa Hakan Dinçkal, Süleyman Sezai Yıldız, Ertuğrul Okuyan
PMID: 21501985  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.073  Pages E12 - E13
Abstract |Full Text PDF

23.Treatment of pulmonary artery bifurcation stenosis by simultaneous implantation of Genesis XD stent
Abdullah Erdem, Fadli Demir, Türkay Sarıtaş, Ali Rıza Karaci, Ahmet Çelebi
PMID: 21501984  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.074  Pages E13 - E14
Abstract |Full Text PDF

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