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The Anatolian Journal of Cardiology - Anatol J Cardiol: 13 (7)
Volume: 13  Issue: 7 - November 2013
EDITORIAL
1.The snake's tale- usual troubles -an ethical issue
Bilgin Timuralp
PMID: 24252557  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.261  Page 632
Abstract | Full Text PDF

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION
2.Severe mitral paravalvular leakage: echo-morphologic description of 47 patients from real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography perspective
Ozan Mustafa Gürsoy, Mehmet Ali Astarcıoğlu, Tayyar Gökdeniz, Ahmet Çağır Aykan, Ahmet Çağrı Aykan, Zübeyde Bayram, Beytullah Çakal, Süleyman Karakoyun, Gökhan Kahveci, Nilüfer Ekşi Duran, Mustafa Yıldız, Mehmet Özkan
PMID: 23912785  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.185  Pages 633 - 640
Objective: Paravalvular leaks (PVLs) commonly occur in mitral prostheses. Real-time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT-3DTEE) may provide invaluable information about complex 3D anatomy of mitral PVLs compared to two-dimensional (2D) TEE findings. We, herein, aimed to evaluate the detailed description of anatomical characteristics of severe mitral PVLs using RT-3D TEE. Methods: Patients with diagnosis of severe mitral PVLs were simultaneously examined with 2D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), 2D TEE, and RT-3D TEE. 3D characteristics of PVLs (localization, number, size, shape, etc.) were recorded and compared to 2D findings. Results were also compared with surgical findings. Results: The study comprised 47 cases (3 bioprosthesis, 44 mechanical) with 61 severe mitral PVLs. The most common PVL localizations were anterolateral commissure, posteromedial commissures and posterolateral region. The mean PVL width measured by 2D TEE was 3.1±1.3 (range; 2-7) mm and the mean width of defect measured by 3D TEE was 3.1±1.1 (range; 2-7) mm (p=0.7). The mean length of defect measured by 3D TEE was 11.1±6.5 mm. The most common defect type was ‘oval/round’ shaped (n=29; 48%). There were also 19 ‘crescentic’ (31%), 9 ‘slit like’ (15%), and 2 tunnel-like shaped defects. In 22 patients, the site and dimension of the PVLs were all confirmed surgically. Conclusions: RT-3D TEE permits detailed structural evaluation of the prosthesis and description of paravalvular leak morphology compared to 2D TEE. It may provide more accurate information to the clinician in decision making and may contribute to the success of the potential corrective procedures.

3.The effect of antioxidant enzyme levels and exercise on syndrome X and coronary slow flow phenomenon: an observational study
Özgür Kaplan, Murat Meriç, Zeydin Acar, Abdurrahman Kale, Sabri Demircan, Özcan Yılmaz, Günnur Demircan, Yeliz Yılmaz Miroğlu
PMID: 23912786  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.186  Pages 641 - 646
Objective: In this study the antioxidant enzyme [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) ] levels at rest in patients with syndrome X and coronary slow flow are measured. Then it has been investigated whether there is any enzymatic difference between the normal controls and syndrome X patients or patients with coronary slow flow and ascertain if exercise has any effects on the antioxidant enzyme levels. Methods: Fifty-five patients were included in this prospective observational controlled study. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Group 1- normal controls (n=20); Group 2-patients with coronary slow flow (n=20); and Group 3-patients diagnosed with syndrome X (n=15). In all patients, blood samples were collected at rest and after maximal exercise. The antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, Gpx) in the erythrocytes were studied for these three groups of blood sample. Statistical analysis was performed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests, Kruskal- Wallis variance analysis and ANOVA. Results: Under basal conditions the lowest SOD and GPx levels were measured in the 2nd Group, whereas significant differences in paired comparisons were observed only between the 2nd and 3rd Groups (p=0.024 vs p<0.01, respectively) during paired comparisons. The post-exercise SOD levels were decreased significantly in the 3rd Groups when compared with the basal concentrations (p=0.014), however no significant pre- and post-exercise differences were observed in the CAT and GPx concentrations (p>0.05). Conclusion: The post-exercise SOD level when compared with basal SOD levels were decreased significantly in the syndrome X group, however no differences were observed between the other groups. This can be interpreted as the reduction in the exercise related symptoms and ischemic findings are resulting from the decrease of SOD activity.

4.Impact of shisha smoking on the extent of coronary artery disease in patients referred for coronary angiography
Ghada M. Selim, Hany Fouad, Samy Ezzat
PMID: 23996801  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.191  Pages 647 - 654
Objective: To study the impact of shisha smoking on the extent of coronary artery disease. Methods: Patients who underwent coronary angiography were included in this observational cohort study and were divided to four groups according to the smoking pattern: shisha smokers, cigarettes smokers, mixed smokers (shisha and cigarettes) and non-smokers. Coronary angiography was done and the severity of coronary artery disease was defined according to Duke Jeopardy Score (DJ). Results: The study comprised of 287 consecutive patients; 22% were shisha smokers, 35% cigarette smokers, 5% mixed smokers and 38% non-smokers. Significant elevation of systolic blood pressure (p=0.009) and heart rate (p<0.001) were observed among mixed smokers followed by shisha smokers, cigarettes smokers and non-smokers respectively. The mean value of DJ score was highest among shisha smokers than mixed smokers, cigarettes smokers and non-smokers respectively (p=0.012). We also compared DJ score in shisha smokers with CAD vs nonshisha smokers with CAD and we found that 71.43% of shisha smokers had an advanced DJ score (>6) which was statistically significant (p=0.008) where shisha smokers showed significantly higher resting pulse (p<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (p=0.001) compared to nonshisha smokers and mean DJ score was significantly higher among shisha smokers (6.961±3.238) vs non-shisha smokers (5.762±3.062) (p=0.004). Conclusion: Shisha smoking is associated with severe coronary artery disease that calls for the need to enroll them in tobacco cessation courses.

5.Serum leptin has no effect on coronary collateral development in patients with non-ST- elevation acute coronary syndromes: an observational study
Özgür Günebakmaz, Mustafa Duran, Mahmut Akpek, Cemil Zencir, Deniz Elcik, Abdurrahman Oğuzhan, Mehmet Güngör Kaya
PMID: 23912787  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.187  Pages 655 - 661
Objective: We attempted to investigate the potential association between leptin and coronary collateral vessel development in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). Methods: One hundred and nineteen consecutive patients with NSTE-ACS with high-grade coronary stenosis or occlusion in at least one epicardial coronary artery were prospectively enrolled in a cross-sectional observational study. Serum leptin levels measured in all patients. Collateral circulation was graded according to the Rentrop classification. Firstly, we divided patients into two groups as good and poor collateral group. Patients with Rentrop 2.3 were regarded as good collateral group. Patients in Rentrop grades 0, 1 classified as poor collateral group. Secondly, patients were divided into collateral (+) group and collateral (-) group. Collateral (+) group included the patients with grade 1, 2, 3 collateral development. Collateral (-) group was composed of the patients with Rentrop 0. Statistical analysis was performed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test, Kruskal -Wallis test and Spearman’s correlation. Results: We did not find statistically significant difference between good and poor collateral groups with regard to leptin levels [4.2 (1.8-8.6) ng/mL and 6.4 (2.4-12.6) ng/mL, p=0.22, respectively]. There was no statistically significant difference in leptin levels between collateral (+) group and collateral (-) groups [4.7 (1.7-10.5) ng/mL and 6.8 (2.7-12.1) ng/mL, p=0.33, respectively]. We observed that there was lower leptin level at higher Rentrop grades [Rentrop 0; 6.8 (2.5-12.5) ng/mL, Rentrop 1; 5.9 (1.7-14.1) ng/mL, Rentrop 2; 4.3 (1.7-8.7) ng/mL, Rentrop 3; 3.9 (2.1-9.7) ng/mL]. However, this difference did not reach statistically significant level (p=0.54). In addition, we did not find statistically significant correlation between Rentrop grades and leptin levels (p=0.246, r=-0.107). Conclusion: The present study reveals no association between serum leptin level and coronary collateral development.

6.Relation of neutrophil -to- lymphocyte ratio with the presence and complexity of coronary artery disease: an observational study
Osman Sönmez, Gökhan Ertaş, Ahmet Bacaksız, Abdurrahman Tasal, Ercan Erdoğan, Emin Asoğlu, Hüseyin Uyarel, Ömer Göktekin
PMID: 23912788  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.188  Pages 662 - 667
Objective: The neutrophil -to- lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a new predictor for cardiovascular risk and mortality. The SYNTAX score is an angiographic tool used in grading the complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, its relation with CAD severity and complexity is not yet known. We hypothesized that NLR would be associated with a greater complexity of CAD as assessed using the SYNTAX score. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study included 106 patients who had undergone coronary angiography for stable angina pectoris and 69 patients who had normal coronary angiogram. Baseline NLR was measured by dividing neutrophil count to lymphocyte count. The patients were classified two groups as CAD (-)(n=69) and CAD (+)(n=106), then patients in CAD (+) group were divided into 3 groups according to SYNTAX scores (SYNTAX score 1-22, 23-32, >32) as pointed in European Society of Cardiology (ESC) revascularization guideline. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of complexity of CAD-SYNTAX score. Results: Patients with CAD had a significantly higher value of NLR [1.6 median (1.2-3.3 IQR) vs. 2.3 median (1.8-3.0 IQR) p<0.001]. The group with high SYNTAX scores (>32) more frequently had diabetes mellitus (DM), hypercholesterolemia (HL), were of older age, and also had significantly elevated NLR values [2.4 (1.3-2.6), 2.6 (2.3-3.9), 2.0 (1.5-2.6) p=0.006]. In univariate analysis, age, DM, HL, creatinine, neutrophil count and NLR were predictors of high SYNTAX score. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, only NLR [odds ratio (OR)=2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.8, p=0.09], was identified as independent predictor of a high SYNTAX score. Conclusion: NLR is a strong clinical laboratory value that is associated with presence and complexity of CAD.

7.Impaired heart rate variability in patients with mitral annular calcification: an observational study
Ertuğrul Kurtoğlu, Erdal Aktürk, Hasan Korkmaz, Halil Ataş, Hasan Pekdemir
PMID: 23912789  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.189  Pages 668 - 674
Objective: The aim of the present study was to study time indices of heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with mitral annular calcification (MAC). Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was performed. Fifty patients with echocardiographic evidence of MAC and 50 age- and gender- matched control subjects without echocardiographic evidence of MAC were included. All the study participants underwent 2-dimensional echocardiographic examinations and 24-hour Holter monitoring for HRV analysis. Student-t, Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Hypertension and coronary artery disease were more common in the MAC group than in the control group. All HRV parameters including mean RR interval, SDNN, SDANN, SDNN index, pNN50 and RMSSD were reduced in the MAC group when compared with the control group (p<0.05 for all). In hypertensive subgroup, all HRV parameters except mean RR interval were diminished in patients with MAC when compared with those without MAC (p<0.05 for all). In non-hypertensive subgroup, all HRV parameters were also diminished in patients with MAC when compared with those without MAC. In the subgroup of patients with coronary artery disease, patients had lower HRV parameters except mean RR interval, pNN50 and RMSSD in comparison to those without MAC (p<0.05 for all). In the subgroup of patients without coronary artery disease, all HRV parameters were depressed in patients with MAC in comparison to those without MAC (p<0.05 for all). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that MAC was associated with reduced heart rate variability which possibly reflects decreased parasympathetic tone with a predominant activity of the sympathetic tone.

8.Left ventricular remodeling assessment in patients with anterior acute myocardial infarction treated with successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention: an observational study
Hatice Uslu, Nazmiye Çakmak, Melih Engin Erkan, Sevim Hacımahmutoğlu, Sabire Yılmaz, Sevil Özkan, Nurten Sayar
PMID: 23996802  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.192  Pages 675 - 681
Objective: We aimed to analyze the left ventricular (LV) remodeling in patients treated with coronary intervention (PCI) in the acute phase of anterior myocardial infarction (MI) and to analyze the relationship between LV functional remodeling and residual viability in the infarct zone detected by thallium-201 (Tl-201) imaging and echocardiography. Methods: We designed an observational prospective cohort study including 30 patients (26 men, 4 women, mean age; 52±12 years old) with acute anterior MI. Echocardiography and Tl-201 imaging were performed in all patients three days and two months after PCI and left ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF) and sum redistribution score (SRS) were calculated. Paired samples t- test or Wilcoxon rank sign test for comparing continuous variables in dependent groups, Pearson correlation for testing relationship between continuous variables were used. Results: Left ventricular function baseline values just after PCI and two months after PCI obtained by echocardiography and scintigraphy were statistically significant. Among patients 76.7% had an EF ≥0.50 after the event. EDV and ESV values are significantly low when compared to values two months before. There was not any marked change in SRS in five patients. Polar maps were correlated with heart rate (r=0.438; p=0.023), peak creatine kinase MB (r=0.440; p=0.015) and troponin (r=0.471; p=0.009) during acute MI. Conclusion: Significant recovery in EDV, ESV and SRS values, and increase in EF two months after the infarction shows us substantial part of the remodeling process is completed in two months and Tl-201 imaging is extremely effective in determining of salvaged myocardium.

9.The effect of nebivolol on P wave duration and dispersion in patients with Behçet’s disease; a prospective single-arm controlled study
Hasan Akkaya, Mustafa Serkan Karakaş, Ömer Şahin, Murat Borlu, Abdurrahman Oğuzhan
PMID: 23996803  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.193  Pages 682 - 687
Objective: Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic multi-system disease presenting with recurrent oral and genital ulceration, and relapsing uveitis. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death have been documented in BD. P wave dispersion (PD) has been reported to be associated with inhomogeneous and discontinuous propagation of sinus impulses. PD has been reported to be longer in patients with BD. Nebivolol, besides its selective beta1-blocking activity, causes an endothelium dependent vasodilatation through nitric oxide release. In this study, we searched for the effects of nebivolol on P wave duration and dispersion in patients with BD. Methods: This study was designed as prospective single-arm controlled study. We prospectively studied 35 Behçet’s patients who were diagnosed according to the International Study Group criteria. Patients received 5 mg nebivolol per day for 3 months. The patients were evaluated with 12-leads electrocardiography at baseline and after for 3-month therapy. The difference between maximum and minimum P wave durations was defined as PD. The paired samples t test, Wilcoxon test were used for statistical analysis. Results: A significant decrease was observed in PD after therapy period (62.85±21.62 vs 44.28±18.03 msec, p=0.001). No adverse effects were observed in treatment period. Conclusion: BD is associated with prolonged P wave duration and dispersion. We have shown for the first time that nebivolol causes a significant decrease in maximum P wave duration and PD in patients with BD. However, further comprehensive studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of nebivolol.

10.Predictors of vasovagal syncope recurrence in children and adolescents and value of head-up tilt table test
Sibel Tanrıverdi Yılmaz, Köksal Binnetoğlu, Kadir Babaoğlu, Gürkan Altun
PMID: 23996804  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.194  Pages 688 - 694
Objective: The aim of the study was to define predictors of syncope recurrence in children and adolescents with vasovagal syncope and to determine the value of tilt test. Methods: A retrospective observational study performed of prospective cohort of 150 patients aged between 8-18 years who were referred to our clinic because of fainting or who underwent tilt test with the pre-diagnosis of vasovagal syncope. The progress updated by telephone or face-to-face interview. Unpaired t-test, Mann-Whitney U test used for normal and non-normal distributed variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of recurrence. Results: Tilt test was positive in 97 and negative in 53 patients. Forty-eight patients had mixed, 34 had vasodepressor and 15 had cardioinhibitory type syncope. Recurrence found significantly higher in patients who had syncope in the first 20 minutes of the test (p=0.012). The number of the episodes decreased after the test; 3.86±4.75 vs 0.73±0.44, p<0.001). The recurrence was higher in patients who had more than 4 episodes. The recurrence was similar between positive and negative tilt groups. Age of syncope (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.002, p=0.027) positive family history (OR 4.47, 95% CI 1.071-1.389, p=0.001) and the number of previous syncopal episodes (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.882-10.623, p=0.003) were identified as risk factors for recurrence of vasovagal syncope. Conclusion: Age of syncope, positive family history and the number of previous syncopes are the predictors of recurrence of vasovagal syncope in children and adolescents. The number of recurrent episodes decreased after the test independently from Head-up tilt test results.

REVIEW
11.Coronary artery ectasia as a culprit for acute myocardial infarction: review of pathophysiology and management
Usama Boles, Roby Rakhit, Man Fi Shiu, Ketna Patel, Michael Henein
PMID: 24084147  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.227  Pages 695 - 701
Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is defined as localized coronary dilatation, which exceeds the diameter of normal adjacent segments or the diameter of the patient's largest coronary vessel by 1.5 times. The pathophysiology of CAE remains unclear as its relationship with atherosclerosis remains only modestly established. The histological variances and conflicting reports of the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, also, weakens the significance of such association. The slow coronary flow (CSF) of CAE may lead to ischemic and thrombotic events, a mechanism that has never been fully elucidated, but may play a fundamental role in its pathogenesis. While pure, non-atherosclerotic, CAE is believed to have better prognosis when compared to atherosclerotic obstructive CAE, it is thought that CAE is not a simple condition but rather has an adverse clinical course. Nevertheless, long-term prognosis and outcome of CAE is similar to atherosclerotic-non-CAE. Since CAE was first described, oral anticoagulants have been considered as a valid treatment option. Dual antiplatelet therapy is widely employed in acute coronary syndrome (ACS), which also applies to CAE patients presenting with ACS. However, there is a significant uncertainty about the best treatment strategy for CAE in acute myocardial infarction. We hereby report a variety of presentations of CAE complicated with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Pathophysiological and anatomical varieties of ectatic coronary culprit lesions represent clinical challenges in uniformly managing this condition. Our review is unique in critically showing the pathophysiology, available controversial evidence upon management and prognostic features of CAE with STEMI.

SCIENTIFIC LETTER
12.Is there a role of MMA T wave alternans test for risk assessment in Brugada syndrome?
Kıvanç Yalın, Ebru Gölcük, Erhan Teker, Ahmet Kaya Bilge, Kamil Adalet
PMID: 24084148  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.228  Pages 702 - 704
Abstract | Full Text PDF

13.Effects of radiofrequency ablation on levels of cardiac biochemical markers in patients with atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia
Hakan Duman, Ziya Şimşek, M. Hakan Taş, Fuat Gündoğdu, Hüsnü Değirmenci, Eftal M. Bakırcı, Selami Demirelli
PMID: 24084149  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.229  Pages 705 - 707
Abstract | Full Text PDF

CASE REPORT
14.Spontaneous closure of a type 3 coronary artery perforation after percutaneous coronary intervention
Mehmet Vefik Yazıcıoğlu, Elnur Alizade, Göksel Açar, Zeki Şimşek
PMID: 24084150  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.230  Pages 708 - 710
Abstract | Full Text PDF

15.Ablation of heterogeneous zone eliminates ventricular tachycardia: can cardiac MR be a criterion for successful ablation?
Kıvanç Yalın, Ebru Gölcük, Ahmet Kaya Bilge, Kamil Adalet
PMID: 24084151  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.231  Pages 710 - 712
Abstract | Full Text PDF

16.Severe tricuspid regurgitation after blunt chest trauma due to chordal rupture: a rare complication
Ali Yıldırım, Tevfik Demir, Behçet Sevin, Gökmen Özdemir
PMID: 24084152  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.232  Pages 712 - 714
Abstract | Full Text PDF

DIAGNOSTIC PUZZLE
17.Patient with nonechogenic chest and pleuritic chest pain
Mustafa Hakan Dinçkal, Ertuğrul Okuyan, İrfan Şahin, Murat Avşar, Fahrettin Turna
PMID: 24172817  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.259  Pages 715 - 716
Abstract | Full Text PDF

18.Out of the ordinary image in common iliac vein
Demet Menekşe Gerede, Serkan Durdu, Başar Candemir, Levent Yazıcıoğlu, Deniz Kumbasar
PMID: 24172818  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.260  Page 717
Abstract | Full Text PDF

LETTER TO THE EDITOR
19.The effects of chronic usage of enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers on contrast-induced nephropathy in low-risk patients
Yavuzer Koza
PMID: 24172799  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.240  Pages 718 - 719
Abstract | Full Text PDF

20.About contrast-induced nephropathy
İsmail Yürekli, Serkan Yazman, Habib Çakır, Barçın Özçem
PMID: 24172800  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.241  Pages 719 - 720
Abstract | Full Text PDF

21.Flow-mediated dilatation measurement as a simple practical method in Behçet’s diseases without cardiovascular involvement
İlknur Balta, Şevket Balta, Sait Demirkol, Uğur Küçük, Ersin Aydın
PMID: 24172801  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.242  Pages 720 - 721
Abstract | Full Text PDF

22.Differential diagnosis of cardiomyopathies: Utility of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
Emre Yalçınkaya, Barış Bugan, Murat Çelik, Uygar Yüksel, Erkan Yıldırım
PMID: 24172802  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.243  Pages 722 - 723
Abstract | Full Text PDF

23.The protection of therapeutic lifestyle change in individuals with prehypertension; a valuable study
Murat Karaman, Mustafa Çakar, Şevket Balta, Seyid Ahmet Ay, Mustafa Dinç, Sait Demirkol
PMID: 24172803  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.244  Pages 723 - 724
Abstract | Full Text PDF

24.Comment on ‘Traditional coronary risk factors in healthy Turkish military personnel between 20 and 50 years old: focus on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol’
Sinan İşçen
PMID: 24172804  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.245  Pages 724 - 725
Abstract | Full Text PDF

25.Surgical treatment of hypertension
Ömer Kurt, Erol Aslan, Şevket Balta, Mustafa Çakar, Kerem Güler, Sait Demirkol
PMID: 24172805  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.246  Pages 725 - 726
Abstract | Full Text PDF

26.As cardiologists how much do we take into account the guideline recommendations while prescribing oral anticoagulants to patients with atrial fibrillation our clinical practice? A striking result!
Faruk Ertaş
PMID: 24172806  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.247  Pages 726 - 727
Abstract | Full Text PDF

27.Familial sick sinus syndrome
Osman Sönmez, Ahmet Bacaksız, Mehmet Akif Vatankulu, Hakan Ulucan, Ömer Göktekin
PMID: 24172807  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.248  Pages 727 - 728
Abstract | Full Text PDF

28.Awareness about preventable cardiovascular risk factors of students attending faculties of Nursing and Literature
Hilal Uysal, Nuray Enç, Yeşim Cenal, Ahmet Karaman, Canan Topuz
PMID: 24172808  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.249  Pages 728 - 731
Abstract | Full Text PDF

29.Cardiohepatic interactions in heart failure
Mehmet Birhan Yılmaz, Maria Nikolaou, Alexandre Mebazaa
PMID: 24252558  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.250  Pages 731 - 732
Abstract | Full Text PDF

30.Long-term prostaglandin E1 use in newborns with duct-dependent congenital heart diseases: one year experience of a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in Turkey
Nuran Üstün, Dilek Dilli, Ayşegül Zenciroğlu, Nurullah Okumuş, Gökçe Çınar, Senem Özgür, Murat Koç
PMID: 24172809  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.251  Pages 732 - 734
Abstract | Full Text PDF

31.Adult overweight and cardiovascular system: risk or disease?
Selthofer-Relatic Kristina, Bosnjak Ivica
PMID: 24172810  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.252  Page 734
Abstract | Full Text PDF

DIAGNOSTIC PUZZLE - ANSWER
32.Patient with nonechogenic chest and pleuritic chest pain
Mustafa Hakan Dinçkal, Ertuğrul Okuyan, İrfan Şahin, Murat Avşar, Fahrettin Turna
PMID: 24172817  Pages 735 - 736
Abstract | Full Text PDF

33.Out of the ordinary image in common iliac vein
Demet Menekşe Gerede, Serkan Durdu, Başar Candemir, Levent Yazıcıoğlu, Deniz Kumbasar
PMID: 24172818  Pages 737 - 738
Abstract | Full Text PDF

ALMANAC SERIAL
34.Almanac 2013: cardiac arrhythmias and pacing
Reginald Liew
PMID: 24084153  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.233  Pages 739 - 750
Abstract | Full Text PDF

E-PAGE ORIGINAL IMAGES
35.An imaging of paradox flow in coronary artery collateralization
Aydın Akyüz, Şeref Alpsoy, Dursun Cayan Akkoyun, Niyazi Güler
PMID: 24172811  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.253  Page E38
Abstract | Full Text PDF

36.Pancardiac hydatid cyst
Eftal Murat Bakırcı, Kamuran Kalkan, Hakan Duman, İbrahim Halil Tanboğa, Hüsnü Değirmenci
PMID: 24172812  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.254  Page E39
Abstract | Full Text PDF

37.“Lovely Heart” on echocardiography: An unusual left ventricular pseudoaneurysm diagnosed incidentally
Özcan Başaran, Can Yücel Karabay, Ahmet Güler, Cevat Kırma
PMID: 24172813  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.255  Page E40
Abstract | Full Text PDF

38.Multimodality imaging of type 4 persistent truncus arteriosus in an adult patient
Sait Demirkol, Uğur Bozlar, Şevket Balta, Mehmet Yokuşoğlu
PMID: 24172814  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.256  Pages E40 - E41
Abstract | Full Text PDF

39.Successful extraction of broken pacemaker leads by using a snare-loop device and radiofrequency ablation catheter
Serkan Yüksel, Erdoğan Yaşar, Sabri Demircan
PMID: 24172815  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.257  Pages E42 - E43
Abstract | Full Text PDF

40.Transarterial closure of long tubular PDA by duct occluder in an infant with interrupted inferior vena cava and azygos continuation
Ahmet Çelebi, Reyhan Dedeoğlu, İlker Kemal Yücel, Abdullah Erdem
PMID: 24172816  doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.258  Pages E42 - E43
Abstract | Full Text PDF