ISSN 2149-2263 | E-ISSN 2149-2271
The Anatolian Journal of Cardiology - Anatol J Cardiol: 7 (1)
Volume: 7  Issue: 1 - March 2007
1.New COPE membership, missing points and friends
Bilgin Timuralp
PMID: 17347065  Page 1
Abstract |Full Text PDF

2.The relation between aortic atherosclerosis and risk factors
Abdi Bozkurt, Murat Çaylı, Mesut Demir, Cumhur Alhan, Esmeray Acartürk
PMID: 17347066  Pages 2 - 5
Objective: To evaluate the impact of risk factors on atherosclerotic changes of aortic wall and valve in patients with and without non-familial hypercholesterolemia by transthoracic echocardiography. Methods: One hundred and eleven patients with non-familial hypercholesterolemia and 112 control subjects were included in the study. Aortic wall and valve were evaluated by visual assessment of wall hyperechogenicity and measuring the valve thickness. Aortic diameters were obtained at the levels of annulus, sinus of Valsalva and at the supravalvular level in the parasternal long-axis view by M-Mode echocardiographic examination. The relationship between parameters of aortic atherosclerosis and risk factors was studied by multivariate logistic regression analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses. Results: The prevalence of aortic wall hyperechogenicity was found to be higher in patients with hypercholesterolemia (84.7% vs 70.5%, p=0.01). The mean aortic root diameters at all levels of patients with hypercholesterolemia were found to be significantly smaller than in patients of the control group (3.1±0.3 mm vs 3.2±0.5 mm, p=0.02 for annulus level, 3.4±0.4 mm vs 3.5±0.4, p=0.004 mm for the level of sinus of Valsalva and 3.2±0.3 mm vs 3.4±0.5 mm, p<0.001 – supravalvular level), but no difference was noted regarding the aortic velocity and pressure gradient across the aortic valve. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR=1.1, CI – 1.02-1.09, p=0.002) and smoking (OR=2.2, CI – 1.06-4.58, p=0.04) were independent predictors of aortic valve thickness. Hypercholesterolemia was an independent predictor for aortic wall hyperechogenicity (OR=2.5, CI – 1.3-4.9, p=0.009) but not for valve thickness. Conclusions: Age, smoking and hypercholesterolemia are related to atherosclerotic involvement of aortic wall and valve.

3.The comparison of logistic regression model selection methods for the prediction of coronary artery disease
Cemil Çolak, Mehmet Cengiz Çolak, Mehmet N. Orman
PMID: 17347067  Pages 6 - 11
Objective: In this study, logistic regression model selection methods were compared for the prediction of coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: Coronary artery disease data were taken from 237 consecutive people who had been applied to İnönü University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Cardiology. Logistic regression model selection methods were applied to CAD data containing continuous and discrete independent variables. Goodness of fit test was performed by Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. Likelihood-ratio statistic was used to compare the estimated models. Results: Each of the logistic regression model selection methods had sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rates greater than 91.9%. Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic showed that the model selection methods were successful in the description of CAD data. Related factors with CAD were identified and the results were evaluated. Conclusion: Logistic regression model selection methods were very successful in the prediction of CAD. Stepwise model selection methods were better than Enter method based on Likelihood-ratio statistic for the prediction of CAD. Age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, family history, smoking, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, stress and obesity variables may be used for the prediction of CAD.

4.Myocardial bridge: a bridge to atherosclerosis
Hamza Duygu, Mehdi Zoghi, Sanem Nalbantgil, Bahadır Kırılmaz, Uğur Türk, Filiz Özerkan, Azem Akıllı, Mustafa Akın
PMID: 17347068  Pages 12 - 16
Objective: Myocardial bridge (MB) is a congenital anomaly characterized by narrowing during systole of some of the epicardial coronary arterial segments running in the myocardium. Although, it is considered as a benign anomaly, it may lead to such complications as acute myocardial infarction, ventricular tachycardia, syncope, atrioventricular block and sudden cardiac death. In this study, we aimed to investigate demographic, clinical and angiographic characteristics of the patients with MB found on coronary angiography. Methods: The present study included 71 patients with MB found on coronary angiographies performed in our institution between January 1999 and September 2003. Based on the findings on angiography, the patients were subdivided into group A (n=41) and group B (n=30). The patients in the group A had no atherosclerotic lesion and the patients in the group B had coronary artery disease in addition to MB. Angiographic, demographic and clinical characteristics of both groups were compared. Results: There were no differences between two groups in distribution of gender and risk factors of coronary artery disease whereas mean age of the patients in the group A was lower (47±5 years vs 55±11 years, p=0.01). Frequency of two or more risk factors for coronary artery disease in a particular patient was significantly higher in the group B (55% vs 30%, p=0.03). Myocardial bridge was located at proximal or mid segments of left anterior descending artery (LAD) in 40 patients whereas its presence in both LAD and right coronary artery was found only in one patient in group A. Mean bridging percent was 43±27% in group A. Localization of MB was LAD in 29 patients of group B. One patient with severe aortic valve stenosis in this group had MB at first septal branch. Mean bridging percent was 70±25% in group B, which was significantly higher than in group A (p<0.05). Atherosclerotic narrowing developed in only LAD in 14 patients, LAD and other vessels in 7 patients and in the vessels without MB in 9 patients. In patients with MB in LAD atherosclerotic narrowing of vessel developed proximally to the MB. Clinically, stable angina pectoris was seen more frequently in group A than group B (70% vs 35%, p=0.01), whereas the frequency of acute coronary syndrome was higher in group B (65% vs 30%, p=0.04). In regard to therapeutic approach, more patients in the group A received medical management (80% vs 50%, p=0.01), while more patients in the group B underwent surgical and percutaneous interventions (50% vs 18%, p=0.04). Conclusion: Myocardial bridge probability should be considered in young patients presenting with angina or if the same symptoms are persistent in the patients without more than one risk factor for coronary artery disease. Myocardial bridge may initiate the development of atherosclerotic lesion or may facilitate progression of atherosclerosis in the proximal segment of the vessel. The risk of acute coronary syndrome rises when atherosclerosis is superimposed on MB. Myocardial bridge should be considered in the young patients, presenting with angina or its equivalents without atherosclerotic lesions on coronary angiography.

5.Myocardial bridge and atherosclerosis
Arda Şanlı Ökmen
PMID: 17347069  Pages 17 - 18
Abstract |Full Text PDF

6.Relationship between the slow coronary flow and carotid artery intima-media thickness
Özgür Avşar, İbrahim Demir, Özgür Ekiz, R. Emre Altekin, Selim Yalçınkaya
PMID: 17347070  Pages 19 - 23
Objective: This study was planned to investigate the relationship between slow coronary flow and the carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) which is an indicator of early atherosclerotic changes in vascular tree. Methods: Consecutive patients (n=203) who were free of any coronary lesions in coronary angiograms were enrolled. The patients were assigned into slow flow (97) and normal flow (106) groups according to the corrected TIMI frame count (CTFC) of every three coronary arteries. Carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured via computer software regarding far-wall method in both common carotid arteries. Maximum and mean CIMT values were compared between the two groups. The accuracy of CIMT in the prediction of slow coronary flow was estimated using Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Results: Maximum and mean CIMT values were 0.814±0.106 mm and 0.668±0.080 mm for normal flow group and 0.966±0.133 mm and 0.780±0.105 mm for slow flow group respectively (p< 0.001). Using 0.861 as the cut-off value for maximum CIMT positive and negative predictive values of slow flow were 80.1% and 70.2% (area under the ROC curve = 0.809; p <0.001; 95% CI 0.750 – 0.868). Conclusions: We find out that CIMT and CTFC are strongly correlated. This implies that slow coronary flow could be an early marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. So patients with slow flow should be followed-up prospectively for possibility of manifest atherosclerosis.

7.Relationship of the blood pressure’s level and skinfold thickness
Hulki Meltem Sönmez, Münire Kuru Karabaş, Neslihan İnci Soysal
PMID: 17347071  Pages 24 - 28
Objective: Hypertension is an important problem of the public health. Insufficient education of the people along with insufficient physical examination also plays a role in the poor success of the diagnosis and treatment of the hypertension. We investigated whether the skinfold thickness has an importance in the prediction of blood pressure or not. Methods: In Aydın City area 110 women and 100 men selected by randomized sampling method were included into our study. Body mass index, blood pressure and skinfold thickness were measured according to the international guidelines. Results: There was a moderate correlation between the skinfold and body mass index (r=0.494, p=0.000) and there was a mild correlation between the body mass index and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (r=0.225, p=0.000 and r=0.300, p=0.000, respectively). There was no correlation between the skinfold thickness and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (r=0.058, p=0.400 and r=0.090, p=0.194, respectively). Conclusion: It is concluded that body mass index, not skinfold thickness, can be used for the prediction of the blood pressure. Some other factors independent from the body mass index might be the determinants of the skinfold thickness.

8.Prospective validation in identical Turkish cohort of two metabolic syndrome definitions for predicting cardiometabolic risk and selection of most appropriate definition
Altan Onat, Gülay Hergenç, Günay Can
PMID: 17347072  Pages 29 - 34
Objectives: To investigate the relative values in the prediction of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) by the metabolic syndrome (MS) as defined by the ATPIII and by its modification of the Turkish Adult Risk Factor Study (TEKHARF-def) and selection of most appropriate definition. Methods: Prospective evaluation of 1683 men and 1718 women, aged ≥28 years participating in the TEKHARF study surveys 1997/98 and 2002/03 with a mean follow-up of 5.9 years. The modification involved especially abdominal obesity (≥95 cm in men, ≥91 cm in women). Results: After exclusion of participants with diabetes at baseline and adjustment for sex and age, both MS definitions predicted the development of diabetes with virtually identical relative risks (RR) (ATPIII 2.85 [95%CI 2.14; 3.80]; TEKHARF 2.84 [95%CI 2.13; 3.81]. After similar exclusion and adjustments, both MS definitions predicted significantly the development of CHD with similar RRs (ATPIII 2.10 [95%CI 1.64; 2.68] in 36% of the cohort; TEKHARF-def 1.90 [95%CI 1.49; 2.43] in 39.6% of the cohort. For both outcomes, the TEKHARF-def provided higher predictive values in men, and (because of the high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol cutoff) the ATPIII definition in women. Absolute annual CHD risk in individuals with MS exceeded on average 2%, while age ≥50 years constituted the most appropriate indicator of further elevated risk in both genders. Most suitable modifications of the ATPIII definition are proved to be impaired fasting glucose (IFG) ≥100 mg/dl and in men ≥95 cm of waist circumference. Most CHD cases afflicting Turkish adults (namely 61% in men and 69% in women) originated from the latter definition of MS. Conclusions: In predicting diabetes and CHD risk, the TEKHARF-def MS is more valuable in men; the ATPIII definition modified for IFG (≥100 mg/dl) should be adopted in women. In 2 out of every 3 cases, CHD originates from MS among Turks, and age ≥50 years is a good indicator of higher risk in both genders.

9.Abdominal obesity and cardiometabolic risk
Ahmet Temizhan
PMID: 17347073  Pages 35 - 36
Abstract |Full Text PDF

10.Effect of diltiazem and metoprolol on left atrial appendix functions in patients with nonvalvular chronic atrial fibrillation
Ilgın Karaca, Naci Coşkun, Mustafa Ferzeyn Yavuzkır, Erdoğan İlkay, Necati Dağlı, Ahmet Işık, Mehmet Balin, Mehmet Akbulut, Nadi Arslan
PMID: 17347074  Pages 37 - 41
Objectives: Thrombo-embolic events are the important cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (CAF). The origin of thromboembolism is often the left atrial appendix (LAA). Flow rate velocity (FRV) inside the LAA is the major determinant of thrombus formation. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of diltiazem and metoprolol used for ventricular rate control on FRV of the LAA in CAF patients and thus to evaluate the positive or negative effects of these two drugs on thromboembolic events. Methods: Sixty-four patients were included in the study. All patients were suffering from CAF for more than a year. The patients were allocated to two groups according with agent used for rate control - metoprolol (Group 1; n=31) and diltiazem (Group 2; n=33). Transesophageal echocardiography was applied to all patients and LAA FRV was measured by a pulse wave Doppler in the 1/3 proximal portion of the LAA. The measurements were repeated after applying 5 mg metoprolol to Group 1 and 25 mg diltiazem to Group 2 via venous cannula. Results: In Group 1 after metoprolol LAA flow velocity changed from 0.25 ± 0.90 m/s to 0.25 ± 0.10 m/s (p>0.05). In group 2 after diltiazem left atrial appendix FRV decreased from 0.21 ± 0.9 m/s to 0.19 ± 0.6 m/s (p>0.05). Conclusions: In patients with CAF metoprolol used for ventricular rate control had no effect on LAA flow velocity and the observed decrease in LAA flow rate velocity with intravenous diltiazem was insignificant.

11.The effect of pharmacological agents on left atrial appendage function in patients with atrial fibrillation
Dilek Çiçek
PMID: 17347075  Pages 42 - 43
Abstract |Full Text PDF

12.Association of renal functional impairment and the severity of coronary artery disease
Serkan Çay, Fatma Metin, Şule Korkmaz
PMID: 17347076  Pages 44 - 48
Objective: Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death in patients with renal failure. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is used for the assessment of the renal functional status. In this study we aimed to examine the association between severity of coronary stenosis and renal function by quantifying the coronary lesions, angiographically and calculating the renal function with the u se of GFR. Methods: Forty-three patients with decreased renal function (calculated GFR<80 ml/min) with a mean age of 67.8 ± 9.0 years and 49 patients without impaired renal function (calculated GFR≥80 ml/min) with a mean age of 52.5 ± 10.3 years were studied consecuti vely from March 2005 to September 2005. Glomerular filtration rate was calculated according to a given formula. All patients underwent selective coronary artery angiography and Gensini scoring system was used for the detection of severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Results: In linear regression analysis, a negative correlation was found between renal function and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis (r=0.326, p=0.002). All patients were classified into quartiles of Gensini score level. In multivariate analysis, the multiple-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of the risk of decreased renal function was 0.99 (95% CI 0.24-4.15) for quartile 2, 4.38 (95% CI 1.11-17.20, p =0.03) for quartile 3, and 7.01 (95% CI 1.72-28.61, p=0.007) for quartile 4 of Gensini score level compared with the quartile 1. Conclusion: Coronary atherosclerosis quantified by Gensini score is significantly associated with the severity of decreased renal function and this association is independent of age and other cardiovascular risk factors.

13.Coronary lesion characteristics in patients with impaired renal function
Hüseyin Bozbaş
PMID: 17347077  Pages 49 - 50
Abstract |Full Text PDF

14.Simultaneous percutaneous atrial septal defect closure and percutaneous coronary intervention
Massimo Chessa, Massimo Medda, Ayman Moharram, Gianfranco Butera, Claudio Bussadori, Carlo Vigna, Mario Carminati
PMID: 17347078  Pages 51 - 53
Objective: To evaluate the possibility to perform both percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and atrial septal defect (ASD) transcatheter treatment during the same session. Transcatheter ASD closure is a well-established alternative to surgery and the treatment of choice for single vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) is accepted to be PCI. Methods: From January 2000 to December 2005, 985 patients were referred to our center for ASD closure. One hundred thirty four patients (59 males, mean age 58 ± 4 years, range 45-72 years) were included in a prospective protocol of ASD transcatheter closure and coronary angiography. Results: In 7 patients we found a coronary artery disease. A combined single setting definitive percutaneous approach (ASD closure and PCI) was performed in 6 patients. The patient number 4 was judged unsuitable for PCI and then was referred for surgery. There was no acute intra-procedural complication in all patients; renal functions pre and post procedure showed no change despite the increase in the amount of contrast used. Conclusion: Our report showed the feasibility of both PCI and ASD transcatheter treatment during the same session.

15.Antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation with ximelagatran: can it be an alternative to warfarin?
Hatice Selçuk, M. Timur Selçuk, Orhan Maden
PMID: 17347079  Pages 54 - 58
Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia associated with a substantial risk of thromboembolism and stroke. Despite numerous disadvantages that limit its efficacy and safety, warfarin is widely used in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism related with atrial fibrillation. Ximelagatran, an oral direct thrombin inhibitor has the potential to be an alternative choice in the prevention and therapy of thromboembolism related with atrial fibrillation. Studies compared ximelagatran with warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at risk for stroke showed that fixed dose oral ximelagatran is effective as adjusted dose warfarin in stroke prevention. Ximelagatran has numerous advantages over warfarin in clinical practice. Although it seems as a promising option for the prevention and therapy of thromboembolism, its safety and efficacy need to be determined definitely by further clinical trials.

16.Pre-hospital thrombolytic therapy
Mehdi Zoghi
PMID: 17347080  Pages 59 - 64
Reperfusion therapy with intravenous thrombolytic agents in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction reduces the infarct size, preserves ventricular function, and therefore reduces mortality. Experimental and clinical studies also showed that time to successful reperfusion is a critical determinant of survival. In this paper the importance of very early (pre-hospital) thrombolysis, its comparison with percutaneous interventional therapy and the feasibility in Turkey are discussed. Although primary coronary interventions are preferred in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction intravenous, early bolus thrombolysis in the pre-hospital stage provides a therapeutic option as good as primary angioplasty. Until necessary policy and technical substructure are completed cardiology centers should apply the most suitable reperfusion strategy according with the guidelines, feasibilities and their experience.

17.The surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation
Belhan Akpınar, Ertan Sağbaş, Mustafa Güden, İlhan Sanisoğlu
PMID: 17347081  Pages 65 - 73
The surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) has entered a new era with the development of new tools and advanced techniques. The Maze III operation remains as the gold standard for the surgical treatment of AF. However new energy sources have been adopted for treating this arrhythmia in an effort to reduce the invasiveness and technical concerns with the original procedure. Success rates ranging between 70-98% have been reported using these new techniques. On the other hand, interventional cardiologists have further improved their techniques so that percutaneous techniques are competing with minimally invasive ablation techniques for the treatment of drug resistant and symptomatic lone AF. These developments have aroused the interest of cardiac surgeons in AF surgery and have found themselves a wide application. It has been estimated that thirty thousand patients have undergone surgical ablation for AF so far. Inevitably, procedure related complications have occurred and caused skepticism by some groups. However, surgical ablation has become a widely accepted treatment modality for AF patients undergoing concomitant cardiac surgery. The aim of this text is to make an overall review of the surgical treatment of AF and evaluate the current situation in view of the literature and the personal experience of the authors.

18.Intraaortic balloon catheter use as an occluder in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm
Mehmet Özkan, Ayhan Uysal, Süheyla Keser, Emre Cumhur Baykan, İsmail Koramaz
PMID: 17347082  Pages 74 - 75
Abstract |Full Text PDF

19.A case of cholesterol emboli syndrome treated with iloprost
Berrin Karadağ, Alper Döventaş, Hasan Özkan, Deniz Suna Erdinçler, Tanju Beğer, Hüsniye Yüksel
PMID: 17347083  Pages 76 - 78
Abstract |Full Text PDF

20.Isolated left ventricular pulsus alternans; an echocardiographic finding in a patient with discrete subaortic stenosis and infective endocarditis
Mehmet Uzun, Cem Köz, Oben Baysan, Kürşad Erinç, Mehmet Yokuşoğlu, Hayrettin Karaeren
PMID: 17347084  Pages 79 - 81
Abstract |Full Text PDF

21.Echocardiographic diagnosis of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection of the infracardiac type
Evren Semizel, Ergün Çil, Özlem M. Bostan
PMID: 17347085  Pages 82 - 84
Abstract |Full Text PDF

22.Moyamoya disease and aortic coarctation in a patient with common brachiocephalic trunk
Kadir Babaoğlu, Tevfik Demir, Şeyhan Kutluğ, Levent Saltık, Civan Işlak
PMID: 17347086  Pages 85 - 87
Abstract |Full Text PDF

23.Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium with bicuspid aortic valve
Yüksel Çavuşoğlu, Recep Aslan, Alparslan Birdane, Demet Özbabalık, Necmi Ata
PMID: 17347087  Pages 88 - 90
Abstract |Full Text PDF

24.Aortic valve replacement with autologous pericardial patch in subvalvular aortic abscess due to Brucella endocarditis
Haşmet Bardakçı, Mustafa Mahmut Ulaş, Kerim Çağlı, Mehtap Temirtürkan, Utkan Sevük, Uğursay Kızıltepe, Adnan Çobanoğlu
PMID: 17347088  Page 91
Abstract |Full Text PDF

25.A salient rectus abdominis hematoma due to enoxaparin
Yusuf Aydın, Levent Özçakar, İhsan Üstün, Leyla Yılmaz Aydın
PMID: 17347089  Page 92
Abstract |Full Text PDF

26.Quality of life and functional status in congestive heart failure
Kazım Özdamar
PMID: 17347090  Pages 93 - 94
Abstract |Full Text PDF

27.Corridor walk tests and heart failure/ Quality of life and functional status in congestive heart failure
Erdem Kaşıkçıoğlu
PMID: 17347091  Pages 95 - 96
Abstract |Full Text PDF

28.Coronary rupture to the right ventricle during PTCA for myocardial bridge
Nuri Kurtoğlu
PMID: 17347092  Pages 97 - 98
Abstract |Full Text PDF

29.Bridge over troubled coronary artery/ Muscular bridge causing non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctio
Ali E. Denktaş
PMID: 17347093  Pages 99 - 100
Abstract |Full Text PDF

30.Coincidental diagnosis of corrected transposition of the great arteries in an asymptomatic 65- year- old patient -
Mehmet Güngör Kaya, Rıdvan Yalçın, Arda Saygılı, Timur kaynak, Atiye Çengel
PMID: 17347094  Pages 101 - 102
Abstract |Full Text PDF

31.An unusual localization of cyst hydatidosis associated with cardiac hydatid disease
Metin Demircin, Ömer Faruk Doğan, Meral Kanbak
PMID: 17347095  Pages 103 - 104
Abstract |Full Text PDF

32.Myxoid tissue fragments in femoral embolectomy material: cardiac myxoma versus myxoid thrombus - A diagnostic dilemma
Rıza Doğan, Ömer Faruk Doğan, Ümit Duman, İbrahim Duvan, Ayşen Terzioğlu, Pınar Fırat
PMID: 17347096  Pages 105 - 106
Abstract |Full Text PDF

33.Tunnel-like ventricular septal defect
Fethi Kılıçaslan, Ata Kırılmaz, Elif Tunç, Rıfat Eralp Ulusoy, Mehmet Uzun, B. Sıtkı Cebeci, Ergün Demiralp
PMID: 17347097  Page 107
Abstract |Full Text PDF

34.A rare chordal anomaly of tricuspid valve in a patient with ventricular septal defect
Rıza Doğan, Ömer Faruk Doğan
PMID: 17347098  Page 108
Abstract |Full Text PDF

35.Unusual combination of coronary artery, bilateral common carotid artery and left common iliac artery aneurysms
Ercan Varol, Mehmet Özaydın, Ahmet Altınbaş, İlker Akkuş
PMID: 17347099  Pages 109 - 110
Abstract |Full Text PDF

36.The anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the right aortic sinus of Valsalva
Meltem Refiker, Erdal Duru, Baran Budak, Funda Bıyıkoğlu
PMID: 17347100  Pages 111 - 112
Abstract |Full Text PDF

37.Rare coronary artery anomaly: a single coronary artery arising from the right sinus of Valsalva
Hüseyin Sürücü, Selnur Okudan, Ersan Tatlı
PMID: 17347101  Pages 113 - 114
Abstract |Full Text PDF

38.Left ventricular thrombus in a patient with esophageal carcinoma
Tolga Özyiğit, Zehra Buğra
PMID: 17347102  Pages 115 - 116
Abstract |Full Text PDF

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