Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of surgical resection of muscle layer on the long-term survival of patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM).
Methods: The original study cohort consisted of 552 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), including 380 patients with HOCM and 172 patients with nonobstructive HCM. All these patients had a definite diagnosis in our center from October 1, 2009, to December 31, 2012. They were divided into three groups, viz., HOCM with myectomy group (n=194), nonoperated HOCM group (n=186), and nonobstructive HCM group (n=172). Median follow-up duration was 57.57±13.71 months, and the primary end point was a combination of mortality from all causes.
Results: In this survival study, we compared the prognoses of patients with HOCM after myectomy, patients with nonoperated HOCM, and patients with nonobstructive HCM. Among the three groups, the myectomy group showed a lower rate of reaching the all-cause mortality with statistically indistinguishable overall survival compared with patients with nonobstructive HCM (p=0.514). Among patients with left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction, the overall survival in the myectomy group was noticeably better than that in the nonoperated HOCM group (log-rank p<0.001). Parameters that showed a significant univariate correlation with survival included age, previous atrial fibrillation (AF), NT-proBNP, Cr, myectomy, and LV ejection fraction. When these variables were entered in the multivariate model, the only independent predictors of survival were myotomy [hazard ratio (HR): 0.109; 95% CI: 0.013–0.877, p<0.037], age (HR: 1.047; 95% CI: 1.007–1.088, p=0.021), and previous AF (HR: 2.659; 95% CI: 1.022–6.919, p=0.021).
Conclusion: Patients with HOCM undergoing myectomy appeared to suffer from a lower risk of reaching the all-cause mortality and demonstrated statistically indistinguishable overall survival compared with patients with nonobstructive HCM. Multivariate analysis clearly demonstrated myectomy as a powerful, independent factor of survival, confirming that the differences in long-term survival recorded in this study may be due to surgical improvement in the LVOT gradient.