Objective: Detailed analyses of clinical characteristics of myocardial infarction (MI) as an essential thrombocythemia (ET)- and polycythemia vera (PV)-related complication have been so far presented mostly as case reports. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the main cardiological and hematological characteristics for better understanding myocardial complications in ET/PV.
Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out involving 263 patients diagnosed with ET or PV (155/108) between 1998 and 2014. Fourteen patients suffered MI during the hematological follow-up. Their clinical characteristics were compared to 162 patients (97 ET and 65 PV patients) who did not exhibit any major thrombotic complications (MI, stroke/transient ischemic attack, and venous events) before or after hematological diagnosis of ET/PV.
Results: Fourteen MI events occurred among the 263 patients (5.3%). Vascular risk factors were found in 92.9% (13/14) of analyzed cases. In all, 71.4% of the MI complications developed within 12 months after the diagnosis of ET/PV. The coronary angiography findings revealed ST-elevation MI in four cases and non-ST-elevation MI in 10. Significant stenosis of coronary arteries requiring percutaneous coronary intervention with a stent implantation was present in seven cases, while three had complex stenoses or previous grafts/stents. All of them had undergone coronary artery bypass graft operations.
Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that early detection and consideration of individual management of vascular risk factors in ET/PV patients are also important. Furthermore, a better theoretic understanding of platelet activation and role of leukocytes in myeloproliferative neoplasm-related thrombosis could open new perspectives in thrombosis prediction and prevention. (Anatol J Cardiol 2016; 16: 397-402)