Objective: Infective endocarditis is usually caused by Streptococcus sanguinis and characterized by inflammatory responses in the endocardium. This study aimed to investigate if the new compound (3R)-5,6,7-trihydroxy-3-isopropyl-3-methylisochroman-1-one (TIM) isolated from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata could provide protection against lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced cell damage in embryonic rat heart cells (H9c2).
Methods: LTA-induced cell damage was established in H9c2, and the protective effects of TIM against the cell damage were examined at different concentrations (0.1–2.5 μM). The inflammatory response and oxidative stress in H9c2 cells were also measured.
Results: Treatment with TIM (0.1–2.5 μM) significantly decreased LTA-induced toxicity in H9c2 cells, which was indicated by increase in cell viability, elevation in the mitochondrial membrane potential, decrease in the release of cytochrome-c and DNA damage, inhibition of caspase-3/9 activities, and change in apoptosis-related protein expression in LTA-treated H9c2 cells. TIM treatment also significantly attenuated the redox imbalance in H9c2 cells by decreasing malondialdehyde and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels as well as by enhancing superoxide dismutase activities and glutathione levels by increasing nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 protein expression. Moreover, TIM treatment decreased interleukin 1 β, interleukin 12, and tumor necrosis factor α levels by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B protein expression.
Conclusion: Our data indicated that TIM protected H9c2 cells against LTA-induced toxicity, at least partially through inhibiting the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, providing scientific rational to develop TIM to treat infective endocarditis.