Objective: Presently, an effective model to predict long-term cardiac mortality in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of the modified Age, Creatinine clearance, and Ejection Fraction (mACEF) score for long-term cardiac mortality in patients with HOCM.
Methods: Two hundred and ninety two patients with HOCM treated non-invasively were enrolled in this study, all of whom had intact medical information.
Results: Over a median follow-up period of 41.9 months, 28 cardiac deaths occurred. In univariate Cox regression analysis, the mACEF score was associated with long-term cardiac death [hazard ratio (HR)=1.795, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.518–2.124, p<0.001]. Multiple Cox regression analysis identified the mACEF score as an independent risk factor for long-term cardiac death (adjusted HR=1.372, 95% CI 1.076-1.749, p=0.011). Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for long-term cardiac death showed that the mACEF score had a considerable predictive value (area under ROC 0.844, sensitivity 89.29%, specificity 75.00%) with an optimum cut-off value of 0.96. The study population was divided into high-risk (mACEF score ≥0.96, n=91) and low-risk (mACEF score <0.96, n=201) groups according to the optimum cut-off value. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed and showed a dramatic higher rate of long-term cardiac mortality in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group (27.4% vs. 1.7%, p<0.001 by log-rank test).
Conclusion: The mACEF score has a considerable predictive value for long-term cardiac mortality in patients with HOCM treated non-invasively. A mACEF score ≥0.96 could be considered as a sign of poor prognosis in patients with HOCM.